The altered levels of adiponectin - leptin as predictive biomarkers to estimate the severity of prostate cancer
Keywords:Adiponectin, Leptin, prostate cancer
Introduction and Aim: Prostate is one of the commonest sites of malignancy affecting elderly male population & is increasingly becoming a significant public health issue especially in countries having aging population. We hypothesized that altered levels of adiponectin-leptins may be an underlying connection between incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) and aged matched males.
Materials and Methods: This study was designed to comparatively corelate circulating serum levels of adiponectin & leptin in 160 elderly patients with PCa to their serum levels in 160 healthy controls. The age and body mass index in all groups were dissimilar in case and control. Based on the Gleason score of 7, =7 >7, patients were further subdivided into low, intermediate, high grades of PCa, respectively.
Results: No significant statistical variance was identified in terms of age, Body mass index (BMI), Radom blood glucose, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, total cholesterol, creatinine, and BUN levels within the compared groups. In PCa patients’ group, concentration levels of serum adiponectin were significantly lower, and levels of serum leptin was significantly greater compared to healthy controls (P<0.001). Statistical analysis revealed a significant positive inverse association between PSA and adiponectin levels (r=0.285, P<0.001) and significant association between serum levels of PSA and leptin (r=0.285, P<0.001). Significant statistical correlation was also evident between BMI, PSA, TG, and leptin were whole group. However, there was no significant association observed between adiponectin or leptin level and grade of the disease.
Conclusion: Evaluation of data in our study suggests that patients of PCa exhibit low concentration of serum adiponectin levels and high concentration of leptin levels. Further, this association was independent of histological grading of disease of disease/disease progression as well as other biochemical parameters.
Freedland, S.J. Obesity and prostate cancer: a growing problem. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11:6763-6766. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-1305
Wong, S.K., Mohamad, N.V., Giaze, T.R., Chin,K.Y., Mohamed, N., Ima-Nirwana, S.Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastases: The underlying mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(10): 2587. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102587
Flach, R.N., Willemse, P.P.M., Suelmann, B.B.M. ,Deckers, I.A.G., Jonges, T.N., van Dooijeweert, C., et al., Significant inter-and intra-laboratory variation in gleason grading of prostate cancer: A Nationwide Study of 35,258 Patients in The Netherlands. Cancers (Basel). 2021; 13(21): 5378. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215378
Moore, S.C., Leitzmann, M.F., Albanes, D., Weinstein, S.J., Snyder, K., Virtamo, J., et al., Adipokine genes and prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2009; 124:869-876. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24043
Chen, M.W., Ye, S., Zhao, L.L., Wang, S.Y., Li, Y.X., Yu, C.J., et al., Association of plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin with risk of colorectal cancer: an observational study in Chinese male. Med Oncol 2012; 29:3129-3135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12032-012-0280-2
Mistry, T., Digby, J.E., Chen, J., Desai, K.M., Randeva, H.S. The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006; 348:832-838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.07.139
Rider, J.R., Fiorentino, M., Kelly, R., Gerke, T., Jordahl, K., Sinnott, J.A., et al., Tumor expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and lethal prostate cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36:639-647. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgv048
Zakikhani, M., Dowling, R.J., Sonenberg, N., Pollak, M.N. The effects of adiponectin and metformin on prostate and colon neoplasia involve activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008; 1:369-375. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0081
Gao, Q., Yao, X., Zheng, J. MiR-323 Inhibits prostate cancer vascularization through adiponectin receptor. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 36:1491-1498. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000430313
Tewari, R., Sing, R., Natu, S.M., Dalela, D., Goel, A., Goel, M.M., et al., Diet, obesity, and prostate health: are we missing the link? J Androl. 2012; 33(5):763-776. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2164/jandrol.111.015578
Parikesit, D., Mochtar, C.A., Umbas, R., Hamid, A.R.A.H. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases. Prostate Int. 2016; 4(1): 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prnil.2015.08.001
Liang, Y., Ankerst, D.P., Ketchum,N.S., Ercole, B., Shah, G., Shaughnessy, J.D. Jr, et al., Prospective evaluation of operating characteristics of prostate cancer detection biomarkers. J Urol 2011; 185:104-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.08.088
Allott, E.H., Masko, E.M., Freedland, S.J. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence. Eur Urol 2013; 63:800-809. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.11.013
Lavalette, C., Trétarre, B., Rebillard, X., Lamy, P.J., Cénée, S., Menegaux, F. Abdominal obesity and prostate cancer risk: epidemiological evidence from the EPICAP study. Oncotarget. 2018; 9(77): 34485–34494. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26128
Zhang, Y.Y., Zhou, L.M. Omentin-1, a new adipokine, promotes apoptosis through regulating Sirt1-dependent p53 deacetylation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Eur J Pharmacol,2013; 698(1-3):137-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.11.016
Ahmad, A.E., Mohammed, A., Bhindi, B., Richard, P.O., Fadaak, K., Leão, R., et al., Serum adipokines as predictors for the outcome of prostate biopsies at early stage prostate cancer diagnosis. Cancer Manag Res. 2019; 11: 10043-10050. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S226174
Dalamaga, M., Diakopoulos, K.N., Mantzoros, C.S. The role of adiponectin in cancer: A review of current evidence. Endocr Rev. 2012; 33(4): 547-594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2011-1015
Burton, A.J., Gilbert, R., Tilling, K., Langdon, R., Donovan, J.L., Holly, J.M.P., et al., Circulating adiponectin and leptin and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci. Rep.2021; 11: 320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79345-4
Somasundar, P., Frankenberry, K.A., Skinner, H., Vedula, G., Mcfadden, D.W., Riggs, D., et al., Prostate cancer cell proliferation is influenced by leptin. J Surg Res 2004; 118:71-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2004.01.017
EGrossmann, M., Cleary, M.P. The balance between leptin and adiponectin in the control of carcinogenesis - focus on mammary tumorigenesis. Biochimie.2012; 94(10):2164-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2012.06.013
Ray, A., Cleary, M.P. The Potential Role of Leptin in Tumor Invasion and Metastasis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2017 Dec; 38:80-97. . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2017.11.002
Singh, S.K., Grifson, J.J., Mavuduru, R.S., Agarwal, M. M., Mandal, A.K., Jha, V. Serum leptin: a marker of prostate cancer irrespective of obesity. Cancer Biomark. 2010; 7(1):11-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3233/CBM-2010-0136
Goktas, S., Yilmaz, M.I., Caglar, K., Sonmez, A., Kilic, C., Bedir, S. Prostate cancer and adiponectin. Urology 2005; 65: 1168-1172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2004.12.053
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Biomedicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.