Evaluation of leptin serum concentration in cases of blood transfusion dependent Beta thalassemia and its relationship with thyroid dysfunction


  • Abeer Cheaid Yousif Al-Fatlawi




Leptin, thyroid function, beta-thalassemia


Introduction and Aim: Thalassemia disorder is characterized by the body’s inability to produce hemoglobin. This is an inherited disorder and arises due to defects in one or more globin chains. Thalassemia patients have been associated with endocrine dysfunction leading to toxic and deleterious effects. In the present study, we aimed to correlate leptin levels in Transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia (TDT) patients to their thyroid hormonal levels and hematological parameters.


Materials and Methods: The study included 50 individuals (25 male and 25 female) aged 11-20 years with beta-thalassemia major and 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 females) aged 13-20 years as controls. All individuals included in the study were assessed for their BMI, complete blood count, serum ferritin and iron, thyroid function, leptin and ghrelin hormonal levels.


Results: This study showed a low BMI in patients as compared to healthy individuals. A high increase in TSH and ferritin was found in patients of both genders as compared to controls. T4 significantly decreased in males and females as compared to control. Significant reduction in leptin levels was observed in both male and female patients. A positive correlation was observed between leptin and TSH in males while a negative correlation between leptin and T4 was observed in females. A significant positive correlation was seen between leptin and T4 and between TSH and T4. BMI in males and female significant low compared to control.


Conclusion: Leptin probably plays an important role in thyroid dysfunction. Serum leptin, ferritin and thyroid hormonal levels in patients could be used as a guide in predicting hormonal modulation in major beta thalassemic patients.




Author Biography

Abeer Cheaid Yousif Al-Fatlawi

Department of Clinical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq


Leung, W.C., Leung ,K.Y., Lau, E.T., Tang, M.H.Y., Chan, V. Alpha-thalassaemia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;13(4):215-222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2008.02.006

Yilmaz, N., Avsar, E., Tazegul, G., Kupesiz, A., Sari, R., Altunbas,H., et al., Endocrine and metabolic disorders in adult patients with thalassemia major. Ann Med Res. 2020;27(5):1428. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/annalsmedres.2019.12.861

Teawtrakul, N., Jetsrisuparb, A., Sirijerachai, C., Chansung, K., Wanitpongpun, C. Severe bacterial infections in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: Prevalence and clinical risk factors. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;39:53-56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.09.001

Shahramian, I., Akhlaghi, E., Ramezani, A., Rezaee, A., Noori, N., Sharafi ,E. A study of leptin serum concentrations in patients with major Beta-thalassemia. Iran J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013;3(2):59-63.

Ramos, C.F., Zamoner, A. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00198

Majeed, M.S. Evaluation of some biochemical and endocrine profiles in transfusion dependent Iraqi major beta - thalassemia patients. Iraqi J Sci. 2017;58(2):639-645.

Upadya, S.H., Rukmini, M.S., Sundararajan, S., Baliga, B.S., Kamath, N. Thyroid function in chronically transfused children with beta thalassemia major: A cross-sectional hospital based study. Int J Pediatr. 2018;2018:1-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9071213

Al-Fatlawi,A.C.Y., Alsafi ,W.G. Hematological study of some blood parameters for beta-thalassemia major patients and effect on their fertility. AIP Conf Proc. 2020;2290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0027473

Voskou S, Aslan M, Fanis P, Phylactides M, and Kleanthous M. Oxidative stress in beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. Redox Biol 2015; 6: 226-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2015.07.018

Hirsch RE, Sibmooh N, Fucharoen S, Friedman JM. HbE/beta-Thalassemia and Oxidative Stress: The Key to Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutics. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;26(14):794-813. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2016.6806

Asadi-Pooya, A.A., Karamifar, H. Body mass index in children with beta-thalassemia major. Turkish J Haematol. 2004;21(4):177-180.

Sanctis, V. De., Kattamis, C., Canatan,D., Soliman ,A.T., Elsedfy, H., Karimi, M., et al., beta-thalassemia distribution in the old world: An ancient disease seen from a historical standpoint. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2017;9(1):1-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4084/mjhid.2017.018

Alathari,R.A., Mahdi, W.T. Investigating some of blood parameters in women with beta -thalassemia. J Phys Conf Ser. 2019;1294(6): 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1294/6/062078

Roth,I.L., Lachover, B., Koren, G., Levin, C., Zalman, L., Koren, A. Detection of beta -thalassemia carriers by red cell parameters obtained from automatic counters using mathematical formulas. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2018;10(1):1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4084/mjhid.2018.008

Ribeil, J.A., Arlet, J.B., Dussiot, M., Cruz Moura, I., Courtois, G., Hermine, O. Ineffective erythropoiesis in beta -thalassemia. Sci World J. 2013;2013: 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/394295

Khandros, E., Thom, C.S., D’Souza J., Weiss, M.J. Integrated protein quality control pathways regulate free alpha-globin in murine beta -thalassemia. Blood. 2012;119(22):5265-5275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-12-397729

Abo-Elwafa, H.A., Hamid, S.A., Heshmat,M.M., Ahmed, Z.S. Impact of ferritin load on gonadal reserve among regular transfused beta -thalassemia. Open J Blood Dis. 2017;07(02):65-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojbd.2017.72007

Fung, E.B., Harmatz, P.R., Lee, P.D.K., Milet, M., Bellevue ,R., Jeng, M.R., et al., Increased prevalence of iron-overload associated endocrinopathy in thalassaemia versus sickle-cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2006;135(4):574-582. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06332.x

Shahramian, I., Noori, N., Ramezani, A., Sharafi, E., Akhlaghi, E. Correlation between serum leptin level and thyroid hormones in children with major beta-thalassemia . Iran J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013;3(4):149-153.

Guo,F., Bakal, K., Minokoshi, Y., Hollenberg, A.N. Leptin signaling targets the thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene promoter in vivo. Endocrinology. 2004;145(5):2221-2227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1312

Choobineh,H., Dehghani, S.J., Alizadeh, S., Ghobadi Dana, V., Saiepour, N., Meshkani, R., et al., Evaluation of leptin levels in major beta-thalassemic patients. Int J Hematol Stem Cell Res. 2009;3(4):1-4.




How to Cite

Yousif Al-Fatlawi AC. Evaluation of leptin serum concentration in cases of blood transfusion dependent Beta thalassemia and its relationship with thyroid dysfunction. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2022 Nov. 14 [cited 2022 Nov. 27];42(5):1029-33. Available from: https://biomedicineonline.org/home/article/view/2276



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics