Biomedicine <p>Biomedicine (Print ISSN: 0970 2067), official publication of Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS), published quarterly in March, June, September and December. It is an International Journal for Biomedical Sciences. The journal publishes research papers, reviews, special article, case report, book review and letter to the editor related to Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Toxicology, Endocrinology, Reproductive Biology, Pharmacology and Alternative Systems of Medicines like Siddha, Unani, Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Naturopathy. Preference will be given to papers of immediate importance to other investigators, either by their experimental data, new ideas or new methodology. Scientific correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief related to the published papers may also be accepted provided that they are short and scientifically relevant to the papers mentioned, in order to provide a continuing forum for discussion.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing</strong></p> <p>Abstract and Articles are indexed in various databases, such as,</p> <p><a href=""><strong>Scopus</strong></a></p> <p><strong>Excerpta Medica</strong></p> <p><strong>Google Scholar</strong></p> <p><strong>Elsevier Indian Citation Index</strong></p> <p><strong>Index Medicus,</strong></p> <p><strong>UGC- CARE</strong></p> <p><strong>NLM Unique ID: 8405231</strong>.</p> <p>Meta Data deposited in DOI and citation is tracked by<strong> crossref.</strong></p> Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS) en-US Biomedicine 0970-2067 Molecular characterization of HBB gene mutations in beta-thalassemia patients of Southern Iraq <p><strong>Introduction and Aim:</strong> Beta-thalassemia is a serious inherited genetic disorder and an increasing health burden globally. Beta -thalassemia is caused by genetic globin abnormalities within the hemoglobin beta (<em>HBB</em>) gene. This study aimed to characterize the HBB gene mutations in beta -thalassemia among southern Iraqi patients.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The study included 30 beta -thalassemia patients referred to the Thi-Qar Center for Genetic Diseases, Iraq and 15 control samples from a random group of apparently healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood sample collected from each individual. The DNA was amplified for specific regions of the HBB gene and the amplified products sequenced. The sequences generated were analysed for mutations using sequence analysis tools.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Molecular analysis revealed several mutations in the HBB gene including translocation, deletion and substitution mutations in the population tested positive for the beta -thalassemia trait.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Thalassemia major is a serious concern in southern Iraq and therefore this study emphasizes a need for complete mutation profiling of the beta -globin gene as a strategy for screening of carriers within the population. Such examinations could be useful in pre-marital genetic counseling and for undertaking prevention and treatment measures.</p> Ali Habeeb Odah Al-Musawi Hussein Mohammed Aziz Safa Khudair Tahreer Hadi Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Biomedicine 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 42 5 1040 1043 10.51248/.v42i5.2280 Assessing the potential correlation of polymorphisms in the TMPRSS2 gene with severity of COVID 19 patients <p><strong>Introduction and Aim:</strong> Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Once infected this virus induces several clinical disorders in humans. SARSCoV-2 enters cells via TMPRSS2. Genetic variation in TMPRSS2 could affect the severity of infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the (TMPRSS2) gene polymorphism affected COVID-19 severity in patients as well as the effect of age and comorbidities on infection.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 400 (185 male, 215 female) Covid-19-infected patients between ages 18-65 receiving treatment in hospitals at Baghdad, Iraq. The patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe based on the severity of Covid-19 infection. Baseline data was collected for each patient through interview and questionnaire. Blood collected from patients was subjected to DNA extraction and detecting polymorphisms within SNPs of the TMPRSS2 gene.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The present investigation indicated higher age to be significantly associated with severe COVID-19 infection when compared to moderate and mild infection (36.14 ± 12.716 vs. 48.52 ± 17.513 vs. 59.26 ± 16.035) (F= 3.697, df: 64, P= 0.000). Patients with comorbidities was associated with a greater rate of severe Covid-19 infection (74.2% vs. 25.8%). However, individuals without comorbidities had a considerably lower rate of mild and moderate Covid-19 infection (13.9% vs. 86.1%) and (36% vs. 64%), respectively (x^2: 97.930, df: 2, P = 0.000). SNPs; (rs383510, rs12329760) within the transmembrane TMPRSS2–7113 was studied and we found no&nbsp; significant (P&gt; 0.05) association for these SNPs to severity of Covid-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results show that the allelic variation within the TMPRSS2 (SNP rs2070788) gene to be linked to increasing illness severity in COVID-19 patients.</p> Nazar Zaki Mahdi Anfal Mohammed Khudhair Nawar Sahib Khalil Copyright (c) 2022 Biomedicine 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 42 5 1034 1039 10.51248/.v42i5.2279 Evaluation of leptin serum concentration in cases of blood transfusion dependent Beta thalassemia and its relationship with thyroid dysfunction <p><strong>Introduction and Aim: </strong>Thalassemia disorder is characterized by the body’s inability to produce hemoglobin. This is an inherited disorder and arises due to defects in one or more globin chains. Thalassemia patients have been associated with endocrine dysfunction leading to toxic and deleterious effects. In the present study, we aimed to correlate leptin levels in Transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia (TDT) patients to their thyroid hormonal levels and hematological parameters.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study included 50 individuals (25 male and 25 female) aged 11-20 years with beta-thalassemia major and 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 females) aged 13-20 years as controls. All individuals included in the study were assessed for their BMI, complete blood count, serum ferritin and iron, thyroid function, leptin and ghrelin hormonal levels.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study showed a low BMI in patients as compared to healthy individuals. A high increase in TSH and ferritin was found in patients of both genders as compared to controls. T4 significantly decreased in males and females as compared to control. Significant reduction in leptin levels was observed in both male and female patients. A positive correlation was observed between leptin and TSH in males while a negative correlation between leptin and T4 was observed in females. A significant positive correlation was seen between leptin and T4 and between TSH and T4. BMI in males and female significant low compared to control.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>Leptin probably plays an important role in thyroid dysfunction. Serum leptin, ferritin and thyroid hormonal levels in patients could be used as a guide in predicting hormonal modulation in major beta thalassemic patients<strong>.</strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Abeer Cheaid Yousif Al-Fatlawi Copyright (c) 2022 Biomedicine 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 42 5 1029 1033 10.51248/.v42i5.2276 Microbiota milieu and mechanisms of intestinal Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) involved in chemotherapy induced mucositis <p>Gut is not only of digestive but also of immunological importance because of the residing microbiota milieu. Pathological or certain therapeutic condition may modify the normal commensal microflora. Mucositis, the most common untoward effect of chemotherapy, can also lead to this microbiotic imbalance. This shift leads to various molecular cascades which in turn trigger the action of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR’s). Toll like receptor (TLR) is one such pattern recognition receptor. In the human body there are about 13 types of TLRs out of which TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5 and TLR-9 are intestinal specific. They respond through ligands such as bacterial derivatives like flagellin, Lipoteichoic acid, Lipopolysaccharides, microbial antigen or genetic material of the viru. In turn via adaptor molecules, TLRs alter the signalling mechanisms and further induct the activation of pro or anti-inflammatory cytokines based on the immunological need. Several of the studies have described the involvement of under twined mechanisms of TLRs during chemotherapy. Therefore, agonists and/or antagonists of these strategic molecules may play a key role in pathological and therapeutic aspects. Thus, this review is an attempt to focus on the involvement of TLRs and microbiota to different chemotherapeutic agents and thereby track the available mechanisms of functionality.</p> Aradhana Marathe Gayathri M. Rao Sharada Rai Copyright (c) 2022 Biomedicine 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 42 5 856 862 10.51248/.v42i5.2275 Physiotherapy for complete motor recovery in 4-year-old child with Guillain Barre syndrome- A case study <p>This study was conducted in 4-year-old male child in sub-acute stage of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) for 12 weeks in a local clinical setup after discharge from the hospital completing IVIG dose. Physiotherapy was given for 12 weeks, 5 days in a week of 1 and half hour session per day with rest periods between the session. Physiotherapy intervention includes passive – active exercise, resisted exercise, weight bearing exercise, mat activities, breathing exercises, task-oriented exercise, balance and coordination exercise, abdominal strengthening, gait training, and play activities. Outcomes used before and after the intervention were Manual Muscle Test (MMT), Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST), Functional independent Measure (FIM), Time Up and Go test (TUG) and Hand dynamometer to analyse the effects of physiotherapy intervention. This study concluded that there was a significant improvement in patient’s motor functions and independence in daily activities after an effective physiotherapy treatment. There was a complete motor recovery after 12 weeks of physiotherapy.</p> Rajalaxmi V. Dhanusia S. P. Bharath Kumar Suriya N. Sridevi G. Copyright (c) 2022 Biomedicine 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 42 5 1110 1113 10.51248/.v42i5.2274