Chronic effects of ionising radiation induced renal damage in albino Wistar rats
Introduction and Aim: Ionising radiation critically target the molecules that make up the cell either by direct effect producing biochemical lesions or indirect effect by radiolysis of water generating free radicals since normal tissues are well oxygenated, free radical induced damage will be profound. Some of the acute radiation toxicity includes erythema and desquamation of skin, gastrointestinal toxicity and myelosuppression. Chronic radiation toxicity is dose limiting and occurs many months or years after radiation exposure. The present work focuses on the toxic effects of various doses of X rays on the kidneys after 30 days of exposure to a single dose of whole body irradiation in albino Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into 4 groups; Group I (controls), Group II, Group III and Group
- The latter 3 groups were exposed to whole body irradiation of 4 Gy, 6 GY and 6.6 Gy respectively. Rats were sacrificed after 30 days of radiation exposure and the kidneys were collected. Antioxidants namely reduced GSH, SOD, Catalase and lipid peroxidation product MDA were evaluated in the kidney tissue homogenate and histo- pathological studies were performed with the renal tissue.
Results: A dose dependant significant decrease in antioxidants viz., SOD and catalase (p<0.05) and consistent increase in MDA was observed which was also statistically significant (p<0.05) which correlated significantly with the extent of tissue damage involving the glomerulus and the renal tubules. Consistent degeneration of the capillaries in the glomerulus with increasing dose of radiation was evident from histological studies.
Conclusion: It is concluded that radiation induces chronic damage to renal system and the extent of damage is proportional to the targeted dose.
Keywords: Radiation; X-rays; chronic effects; kidney tissue.
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