Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity of Clinacanthus nutans on human gingival fibroblast cell line


  • A’attiyyah Ab Alim
  • Wan Afiqah Syahirah Wan Ghazali
  • Nor Azah Mohd Ali
  • Kannan Thirumulu Ponnuraj
  • Suharni Mohamad
  • Ahmad Azlina



Clinacanthus nutans, ethanol, aqueous, cytotoxicity, human gingival fibroblasts


Introduction and Aim: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) possesses antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to carry out phytochemical analyses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. nutans leaves and also its cytotoxic potential on human gingival fibroblast cell line HGF-1.


Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analyses was conducted using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Cytotoxicity testing was carried out by treating the HGF-1 with different concentrations (50,100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400 µg/ml) of both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. nutans leaves using MTT assay. The control comprised only the cell suspension and culture medium.


Results: Phytochemical study revealed 53 compounds. Furfural, 2-furanmethanol, butyrolactone, phenol, benzeneacetaldehyde, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, vitamin E, campesterol, stigmasterol,.gamma.-Sitosterol and lupeol were the compounds identified in both extracts. Both the extracts did not exhibit any cytotoxicity on HGF-1 based on MTT assay with IC50 values of 1099 µg/ml (ethanol extract) and 2627 µg/ml (aqueous extract).


Conclusion: This study showed that ethanol and aqueous extracts of C. nutans leaves contained varied phytochemical compounds and were non-cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cell line under the present test conditions.

Author Biographies

A’attiyyah Ab Alim

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Wan Afiqah Syahirah Wan Ghazali

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Nor Azah Mohd Ali

Herbal Product Development Laboratory, Natural Products Division, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Selangor, Malaysia

Kannan Thirumulu Ponnuraj

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Suharni Mohamad

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Ahmad Azlina

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia


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How to Cite

Ab Alim A, Wan Ghazali WAS, Mohd Ali NA, Ponnuraj KT, Mohamad S, Azlina A. Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity of Clinacanthus nutans on human gingival fibroblast cell line. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2022 May 1 [cited 2022 Nov. 27];42(2):241-6. Available from:



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