Umbilical cord serum lipid profile of healthy neonates- A single center study from rural Tamil Nadu, India
Keywords:Cord blood lipid, neonates, diabetic mothers
Introduction and Aim: Umbilical cord lipid profile of neonates might help facilitate the assessment of risk of developing atherosclerotic disorders later in life. This study prospectively measures the cord blood lipid profile of healthy newborn at birth in medical college hospital in rural Tamil Nadu.
Material sand Methods: Consecutive full-term newborns (n=105) were enrolled for this study. Umbilical cord blood sample was collected from placental end of the cord immediately after delivery of placenta of each baby and sent to the lab for lipid profile estimation.
Results: In the newborns born to non-diabetic mothers, the mean cord blood total serum cholesterol (TC) was 73.31mg %, triglyceride (TGL) was 51.50mg %, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) 24.62 mg % and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) 51.73 mg %. Amongst newborns born to diabetic mothers, the mean TC was 113 mg % (P = 0.001), TGL 98.08mg% (P = 0.045) HDL 28.75 mg% (P = 0.130) LDL 73.48mg% (P = 0.007). Umbilical cord blood lipid profile did not show any significant sex-dependent difference. There was no statistical difference in lipid values between appropriate for gestational age (AGA)and small for gestational age (SGA). Birth weight had a negative correlation to cord blood serum TC and TGL values and showed no correlation to HDL and LDL values. Other parameters including head circumference, length of newborn at birth also showed no correlation to lipid profile. Total cholesterol, TGL and LDL were significantly elevated in newborns born to diabetic mothers. There was no statistical difference in cord blood lipid profile of babies born to mothers who were hypertensive.
Conclusion: Infants born to diabetic mothers tend to have significantly elevated lipid values at birth and must be followed regularly later in life to diagnose and treat dyslipidemia and diabetes, to prevent onset of premature atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in this population.
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