Vitamin D deficiency in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: its association with microvascular complications




Diabetes, microvascular complications, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, Vitamin D


Introduction and Aim: A worldwide epidemic, type 2 diabetes affects 382 million people. Nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy are examples of microvascular consequences. According to estimates, 1 billion people, or close to 15% of the world's population, are vitamin D deficient. There is proof that inadequate vitamin D levels are linked to poor glycaemic management. However, there is a dearth of information from India on a potential connection between a vitamin D deficit and microvascular problems. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine if individuals with microvascular consequences of diabetes are more likely to suffer from vitamin D insufficiency.


Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 72 diabetic subjects availing the inpatient services of Father Muller Medical College Hospital. Diabetes was diagnosed as per American Diabetes Association guidelines. Subjects were examined for presence of neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy by nerve conduction study, urine protein creatinine ratio and fundus examination respectively. Serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Data was recorded and statistically analysed.


Results: Seventy-two patients fulfilling the selection criteria were recruited for this study. 77.8% of subjects had poorly controlled diabetes and  66.66% had vitamin D deficiency. 39 (54.16%) of subjects had microvascular complications of which  28 (38.8%) had neuropathy, 14 (19.4%) had retinopathy and 28 (38.9%) had nephropathy. 71% of patients with microvascular complications had vitamin D deficiency.


Conclusion: Poor glycemic control is strongly correlated with vitamin D insufficiency. Individuals who suffer from microvascular problems tend to have inadequate levels of vitamin D more frequently than people without such difficulties.

Author Biographies


K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte Deemed to be University, Mangaluru, 575 018, Karnataka, India

Smitha Bhat

Department of Medicine, Father Mullers Medical College, Mangaluru, 575002


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How to Cite

Vishnumoorthy, Bhat S. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: its association with microvascular complications. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 May 26 [cited 2024 Mar. 3];43(02):785-90. Available from:



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