Burden of illness, risk factor and physical activity in cardiovascular disease- A review
Keywords:Cardiovascular Disease, Air Pollution, Physical Activity in cardiovascular diseases, Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, Incidence and prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular illness encompasses a group of diseases affecting the blood vessels and the structure of the heart, and it remains one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases worldwide. Over the years, the rate of death from cardiovascular diseases has shown a significant decline in several high-income countries, primarily due to reductions in risk factors and advancements in cardiovascular disease management. Nonetheless, the global burden of cardiovascular diseases remains substantial, with an estimated 55 million deaths occurring in 2017, out of which 17.7 million were attributed to cardiovascular disease. The focus of this review is to explore the burden of illness, risk factors, and physical activity levels in populations affected by cardiovascular diseases. Studies have identified 14 potentially modifiable risk factors that were strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality, surpassing the significance of body mass index (BMI), as evidenced by the PURE (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology) study and prior research. While cardiovascular deaths have decreased in several developed countries, there has been a significant increase in low- and middle-income countries. Physical activity has emerged as a critical factor in reducing the risk of mortality and major cardiovascular events, regardless of the type of physical activity and other risk factors. The Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) for Americans in 2008 recommended a range of moderate and vigorous physical activity and highlighted its inverse association with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and incident CVD. Emphasizing the importance of physical activity, this low-cost approach holds tremendous potential in reducing deaths and cardiovascular diseases on a global scale. Overall, this review highlights the ongoing global challenge of cardiovascular diseases and underscores the importance of preventive measures, including promoting physical activity, to improve cardiovascular health and reduce the burden of illness worldwide.
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