Prevalence and associated risk factors of urolithiasis in India, a systematic review


  • Leena Sequira
  • Saraswathi Hebbar
  • Ravishankar N.



Risk factor, Prevalance, urolithiasis


Introduction and Aim: In India approximately two million persons are affected by urolithiasis per year and some areas of India have been named as a stone belt. This article reviews information regarding associated risk factors of urolithiasis from Indian perspectives.


Methods: The studies were retrieved from eight electronic databases. All the cases of an adult above the age of 18 with urolithiasis were included in this review. The studies conducted in different states of India on human subjects and published between 2010 -2017, which are available in electronic media were included. The quality of studies was assessed by the help of Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses. A narrative approach was adopted to analyze the data.


Results: The risk factors identified were, less frequency of urination /day, consumption of red meat once a month or more, higher consumption of calcium, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus, high intake of coffee, tea, and sugar, working in high temperatures, lack of physical activity, obesity, and ground water consumption. Habits like smoking and alcohol consumption. Some of the disease conditions like urinary tract infection, renal cyst, horseshoe kidney, atrophic kidney, benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Conclusion: The urolithiasis among adults is a public health problem and calls for appropriate action against this.

Author Biographies

Leena Sequira

Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, 576104, Karnataka, India

Saraswathi Hebbar

Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, 576104, Karnataka, India

Ravishankar N.

Department of Biostatistics, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India



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How to Cite

Sequira L, Hebbar S, N. R. Prevalence and associated risk factors of urolithiasis in India, a systematic review. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 May 4 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];43(02):572-6. Available from:

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