Association of electrolyte imbalance, coagulopathy, procalcitonin and mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2


  • Aleena Varughese
  • Greeshma B. Kotian
  • Raghavendra L.S. Hallur
  • Manjula Shantaram



SARS-CoV-2, Electrolyte Imbalance, Coagulopathy, Procalcitonin, Mortality


Introduction and Aim: “SARS-CoV-2” (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2), a member of the coronavirus family, is the culprit behind COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). We intended to examine the risk factors for infection in patients presenting with corona virus in the emergency department and to report electrolyte disturbance, coagulopathy, procalcitonin, and mortality in COVID-19 patients. The aim was to examine how electrolytes, coagulation parameters, and procalcitonin are associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational analysis, information on 106 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection was gathered, and survivors and non-survivors were further identified. Continuous parametric variables were statistically reported as Mean ±SD. Analysis was done on the relationship between biochemical markers and mortality.


Results: Substantially low Sodium (P = 0.09), Potassium (P = 0.01), and Chloride (P = 0.000) levels were identified in ‘severe COVID-19 patients’ with survivors than in non-survivors, although the p-value for chloride was significantly connected with non-survivors. No statistically significant data were reported for Prothrombin Time (PT). In patients in the survival group, there was an elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) with a 0.05 p-value and a significant correlation (p = 0.04). With a p-value of 0.01 in both survivors and non-survivors, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was marginally elevated dimer values were discovered to be noticeably higher in both survivors and non-survivors, and they were substantially connected with a p-value of 0.05. With a p-value of 0.01 the surviving group was shown to have higher procalcitonin levels.


Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates that the extremity of COVID-19 is linked to acid-base imbalance, coagulopathy, and death.

Author Biographies

Aleena Varughese

Department of Biochemistry, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya Deemed to be University, Deralakatte, 575018, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Greeshma B. Kotian

Department of Biochemistry, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kuntikana, Mangalore, 575 004, Karnataka, India

Raghavendra L.S. Hallur

College of Biosciences and Technology, Pravara Institutes of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Loni, 413 736, Rahata Taluka, Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra, India

Manjula Shantaram

AJ Research Centre, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kuntikana, Mangalore, 575 004, Karnataka, India


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How to Cite

Varughese A, B. Kotian G, L.S. Hallur R, Shantaram M. Association of electrolyte imbalance, coagulopathy, procalcitonin and mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 9 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];43(5):1578-81. Available from:



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