The effect of Mentha piperita oil in improving serotonin level, physiological factors, antioxidants and fertility markers in male rabbits on opioid oxycodone withdrawal
Keywords:Mentha piperita oil, oxycodone, serotonin, cortisol, antioxidant activity, sperm activity
Introduction and Aim: Medicinal plants have shown to be effective in treatment of different stages of addiction with lower side effects, including reducing the severity of withdrawal symptoms that occur when an opioid-dependent patient stops using opioids. The current study aimed to evaluate the effective role of Mentha piperita oil on alleviating the symptoms of oxycodone withdrawal, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which it does so.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-five healthy male rabbits divided into 5 groups (G1-G5) consisting of 5 rabbits each. The groups were divided as follows: G1-Control Group: G2-Oxycodone: G3-Oxycodone withdrawal: G4-Oxycodone withdrawal + M. piperita: G5-Oxycodone withdrawal +M. piperita. Blood was drawn from each animal and the serum obtained was analyzed for physiological (cortisol, serotonin, dopamine, CRP and T, LH levels), antioxidant parameters (LDH, SOD, GSH and MDA) and sperm activity.
Results: This study found statistically significant changes in most variables. G2 rabbits had higher serotonin and dopamine levels, higher body weight, and lower cortisol and CRP levels than the healthy control group G1. Sperm activity, efficacy, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde did not alter across generations (G2 and G1). Group 3 showed that oxycodone withdrawal negatively affected dopamine, testosterone, LH, SOD, GSH, and sperm activity with weight, compared to Groups 1 and 2. Without therapy, rabbits in G3 with fast withdrawal had considerably higher cortisol, CRP, LDH, and MDA than G2 and G1. Serotonin level decreased in G3 compared with G1 and G2. An improvement in most of the studied variables, stress factors and antioxidants, as well as fertility indicators in the G4 and G5 improved gradually depending on period of treatment with M. piperita.
Conclusion: M. piperita being rich in antioxidants can be adopted as one of the natural plant-based compound in patients undergoing oxycodone addiction withdrawal.
Rehni, A.K., Jaggi, A.S.and Singh, N. Opioid withdrawal syndrome: emerging concepts and novel therapeutic targets. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013;12(1):112-125.
Caitlin, M.V., Kirsten, A.P., Vedran, L. Robert, T.K., Brandon, J.A. Rapid dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens: dramatic difference between morphine and oxycodone delivery, Eur J Neurosci. 2014; 40(7):3041-3054.
Scavone, J.L., Sterling, R.C., Van- Bockstaele, E.J. Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal. Neuroscience. 2013; 17(248):637-654.
Kreek, M.J., Koob, G.F. Drug dependence: Stress and dysregulation of brain reward pathways. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998;51(1–2):23-47.
Bahmani, M., Mirhoseini, M., Shirzad, H., Sedighi, M., Shahinfard, N., Rafieian-Kopaei, M. A review on promising natural agents effective on hyperlipidemia. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015; 20(3):228-238.
Tvrda, E., Tusimova, E., Kovacik, A., Paal, D., Libova, L., Lukac, N. Protective effects of quercetin on selected oxidative biomarkers in bovine spermatozoa subjected to ferrous ascorbate. Reproduction of Domestic Animals. 2016; 51(4):524-537.
Kennedy, D., Okello, E., Chazot, P., Howes, M.J., Ohiomokhare, S., Jackson, P., et al., Volatile terpenes and Brain Function: Investigation of the Cognitive and Mood Effects of Mentha × Piperita L. Essential Oil with In Vitro Properties Relevant to Central Nervous System Function Nutrients. 2018; 10(8):1029.
Thompson, L.A., Spoon, T.R., Goertz, C.E., Hobbs, R.C., Romano, T.A. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). PLoS One. 2014; 9(12): E114062.
Shahin, Z., Leheta, T.M., Hay, R.M.A., Aal, H.M.A., Rashed, L.A. Detection of plasma and urinary monoamines and their metabolites in nonsegmental vitiligo. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2012; 20(1):14-20.
Li, G., Ma, H., Yin, Y.,Wang, J. CRP,IL-2 and TNF-a level in patients with uremia receiving hemodialysis. Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17:3350-3355.
Sedlak, J., Lindsay, R.H. Estimation of total, protein-bound, and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman's reagent. Analytical Biochemistry. 1968; 25:192-205.
Guidet, B., Shah, S. The level of malondialdehyde after activation with H2O2 and CuSO4 and inhibition by deferoxamine and molsidomine in the serum of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Nat J Chem. 1989; 5:139-148.
Lenton,,E., Meal, S., Sulaiman, R. Plasma concentration of human Gonadotropin from the time of Implantation until the second week of pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility. 1982; 37:733-778.
Möller, J., Bhat, K., Guhl, L., Pörtner, R., Jandt, U.,Zeng, A.P. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex related to lactate switch in CHO cells. Eng Life Sci. 2021; 21(3-4):100-114.
Levine, R., Brown, M., Bell, M. Shue, F., Greenberg, G., NandBordson, B.L. Air–conditioned environments do not prevent deterioration of human semen quality during the summer Fertil. Steril. 1992; 57:1075-1083.
Kosten, T.R., George, T.P. The Neurobiology of Opioid Dependence: Implications for Treatment. Sci Pract Perspect., 2012; 1(1): 13-20.
Allegra, S., Imperato, A., Angelucci, L., Cabib, S. Acute stress induces time-dependent responses in the dopamine mesolimbic system. Brain Res.1991, 554 (2): 17-22.
Rivot, J. P., Pointis, D.M., Besson, J. A comparison of the effects of morphine on 5-HT metabolism in the periaqueductal gray, ventromedial medulla, and medullary dorsal horn: in vivo electrochemical studies in freely moving rats. Brain Research. 1989; 495:140-144.
Haleem, D. Repeated coreticosterone treatment attenuates behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino) tetralin in rats. Life. Sci., 1992; 51: 225-230.
Parveen, T., Amin, N., Saleem, D., Razi, F., Haider, S., Haleem, D.J. Antistress effect of Mentha piperita in rats and the role of brain serotonin and dopamine Asian J Pharm Biol Res. 2012; 2(1):73-78.
McKay, D.L., Blumberg, J.B. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.) Phytother. Res. 2006; 20: 619-633.
Benzaid, C., Tichati, L., Djeribi, R., Rouabhia, M. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Mentha × piperita Essential Oil against Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plant. 2019; 22(2):335-346.
Wu, Z., Tan, B., Liu, Y., Dunn, J., Martorell Guerola, P., Tortajada, M., et al., Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils from Peppermint, Native Spearmint and Scotch Spearmint. Molecules. 2019;24(15): 2825.
Luo, T., Wang, F., Weng, S., Chen, H., Kang, J., Luo, S. Menthol compromises human sperm function by affecting the sperm intracellular calcium concentration and tyrosine phosphorylation. Reproductive Toxicology. 2020; 93: 99-105.
Soltani, M. M., Abtahi-Eivari, S.H., Shoorei, H., Shokoohi, M. Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on torsion /Detorsion –induced tissue damage and oxidative stress in adult rat testis. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2018; 12(3):242-248.
Hamoode, R.H., Alkubaisy, S.A., Sattar, D.A., Hamzah, S.S., Saleh, T.H., Al-Rubaii, B.A.L. Detection of anti-testicular antibodies among infertile males using indirect immunofluorescent technique. Biomedicine, 2022; 42(5): 978-982.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Biomedicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.