Impact of risk factors on the development of breast cancer in women from Kyrgyzstan


  • Damir Abdyldaev
  • Indira Kudaibergenova
  • Saltanat Iliyazova
  • Iana Karabaeva
  • Banur Uzakbaeva
  • Tugolbai Tagaev



Breast cancer, risk factors, protective factors, regression analysis, menopause


Introduction and Aim: Breast cancer (BC) is the world's leading oncological disease in terms of prevalence among females and accounts for 25% of all oncological diseases affecting the female population, 25% of women are from the age of 50–60 years. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors affecting the development of BC in women from Kyrgyzstan (well–known, specific, and protective).


Methods: This is a retrospective study that analyzed medical records and outpatient records of 1024 patients with BC treated at the National Center of the Oncology and Hematology of the Ministry of Health of Kyrgyzstan from 2016–2021.


Results: Regression analysis showed that out of numerous BC risk factors, only five factors are significant: spontaneous miscarriages (RR = 5.0, p<0.007), preterm birth (RR = 5.0, p<0.007), kidney disease (RR = 5.2, p<0.002), severe anemia (RR = 6.1, p<0.002) and severe postpartum bleeding (RR = 6.9, p<0.002), as indicated by a RR of 0, CI <1, and p<0.001.                           


Conclusion: Based on regression analysis, the presence and influence of specific risk factors for the development of BC in women from Kyrgyzstan were proved: spontaneous miscarriages, premature birth, kidney disease, severe anemia, and severe postpartum bleeding.

Author Biographies

Damir Abdyldaev

Department of Special Surgical Disciplines, International Higher School of Medicine, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

International Faculty of Medicine, Salymbekov University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Indira Kudaibergenova

Department of Oncology, I. K. Akhunbaev Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Saltanat Iliyazova

Department of Mammology, National Center of Oncology and Hematology, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Iana Karabaeva

Department of Special Surgical Disciplines, International Higher School of Medicine, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Banur Uzakbaeva

International Faculty of Medicine, Salymbekov University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Tugolbai Tagaev

Department of Public Health and Health care, I. K. Akhunbaev Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan


Lei, S., Zheng, R., Zhang, S., Wang, S., Chen, R., Sun, K., et al., Global patterns of breast cancer incidence and mortality: A population-based cancer registry data analysis from 2000 to 2020. Cancer Commun (Lond). 2021;41(11):1183-1194.

McPherson, K., Steel, C. M., Dixon, J. M. ABC of breast diseases. Breast cancer-epidemiology, risk factors, and genetics. BMJ. 2000;321(7261):624-628.

Chissova., V. V., Starinsky., G. V., Petrova, M. The state of oncological care for the population of Russia in 2010. Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia. Moscow; 2011. p188 c.

Chokoev, A., Akhunbaev, S., Kudaibergenova, I., Soodonbekov, E., Kulayev, K., Ospanov, K., et al., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2022;23(5):1603-1610.

Chen, M. J., Wu, W. Y., Yen, A. M., Fann, J. C., Chen, S. L., Chiu, S. Y., et al., Body mass index and breast cancer: analysis of a nation-wide population-based prospective cohort study on 1 393 985 Taiwanese women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40(3):524-530.

Godet, I., Gilkes, D. M. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and treatment strategies for breast cancer. Integr Cancer Sci Ther. 2017;4(1):10.15761/ICST.1000228.

Joko-Fru, W. Y., Jedy-Agba, E., Korir, A., Ogunbiyi, O., Dzamalala, C. P., Chokunonga, E., et al., The evolving epidemic of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: Results from the African Cancer Registry Network. Int J Cancer. 2020;147(8):2131-2141.

Momeni Movahed, Z., Salehiniya, H. Epidemiological characteristics of and risk factors for breast cancer in the world. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press). 2019;11:151-164.

Anderson, K. N., Schwab, R. B., Martinez, M. E. Reproductive risk factors and breast cancer subtypes: a review of the literature. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;144(1):1-10.

Bhadoria, A. S., Kapil, U., Sareen, N., Singh, P. Reproductive factors, and breast cancer: a case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India. Indian J Cancer. 2013;50(4):316–321.

Ferlay, J., Colombet, M., Soerjomataram, I., Parkin, D. M., Pineros, M., Znaor, A., et al., Cancer statistics for the year 2020: An overview. Int J Cancer. 2021; 149:778–789.

Heer, E., Harper, A., Escandor, N., Sung, H., McCormack, V., Fidler-Benaoudia, M. M. Global burden and trends in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer: a population-based study. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(8): e1027–e1037.

Dupont, W. D., Page, D. L. Risk factors for breast cancer in women with proliferative breast disease. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(3):146-151.

Sung, H., Ferlay, J., Siegel, R. L., Laversanne, M., Soerjomataram, I., Jemal, A., et al., Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(3):209-249.

WHO. Cancer. World Health Organization; 2019. Available from: Last accessed on 18 January 2023.

Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(11):1141-1151.

Beral, V., Bull, D., Doll, R., Peto, R., Reeves, G., Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Lancet. 2004;363(9414):1007-1016.

Lahmann, P. H., Friedenreich, C., Schuit, A. J., Salvini, S., Allen, N. E., Key, T. J., et al., Physical activity and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(1):36-42.

NCI. The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. National Cancer Institute; 2022. Available from: Last accessed on 18 January 2023.

Ford, D., Easton, D. F., Stratton, M., Narod, S., Goldgar, D., Devilee, P., et al., Genetic heterogeneity and penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62(3):676-689.

Antoniou, A., Pharoah, P. D., Narod, S., Risch, H. A., Eyfjord, J. E., Hopper, J. L., et al., Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case Series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72(5):1117-1130.

Cybulski, C., Wokolorczyk, D., Jakubowska, A., Huzarski, T., Byrski, T., Gronwald, J., et al., Risk of breast cancer in women with a CHEK2 mutation with and without a family history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(28):3747-3752.

Li, L., Zhong, Y., Zhang, H., Yu, H., Huang, Y., Li, Z., et al., Association between oral contraceptive use as a risk factor and triple-negative breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Clin Oncol. 2017;7(1):76-80.

Chen, Y., Liu, L., Zhou, Q., Imam, M. U., Cai, J., Wang, Y., et al., Body mass index had different effects on premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risks: a dose-response meta-analysis with 3,318,796 subjects from 31 cohort studies. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):936.

Pettersson, A., Graff, R. E., Ursin, G., Santos Silva, I. D., McCormack, V., Baglietto, L., et al., Mammographic density phenotypes and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(5): dju078.

Dyrstad, S. W., Yan, Y., Fowler, A. M., Colditz, G. A. Breast cancer risk associated with benign breast disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;149(3):569-575.




How to Cite

Abdyldaev D, Kudaibergenova I, Iliyazova S, Karabaeva I, Uzakbaeva B, Tagaev T. Impact of risk factors on the development of breast cancer in women from Kyrgyzstan. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 May 4 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];43(02):603-9. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics 

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>