Ethanolic extract of Muntingia calabura L. as an antihypercholesterolemic by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in white mice (Mus musculus)


  • Anita Lidesna Shinta Amat
  • Herman Pieter Louis Wungouw
  • Efrisca Meliyuita Br Damanik
  • Prisca Pakan
  • Desi Indriarini



Muntingia calabura, Hypercholesterolemia, malondialdehyde


Introduction and Aim: A diet high in cholesterol causes hypercholesterolemia by elevating plasma cholesterol levels. Hypercholesterolemia causes an increase in cholesterol concentration within cells, resulting in membrane-altering lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is produced during lipid peroxidation to form peroxides and other free radicals. The present study aims to evaluate the potential of Muntingia calabura L. ethanolic extracts as a hypercholesterolemia agent by reducing MDA levels in hypercholesterolemic white mice (Mus musculus).


Materials and Methods: The present study has a true experimental design with a control group consisting only of post-test samples. The research utilized approximately 25 white mice (Mus musculus) randomly. These white mice were separated into five groups, consists of negative control (C1), positive control (C2), M. calabura L. ethanolic extracts at doses of 13 mg/20g/BW (C3), 26 mg/20g/BW (C4), and 52mg/20g/BW (C5). The concentration of MDA was measured on the 21st day of treatment using the TBARS method.


Results: The results indicated that the M. calabura L. extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduce the total cholesterol and MDA levels in the blood of white mice (Mus musculus). The evidence supporting this conclusion is based on the data obtained from mice that received various doses of M. calabura L leaf extract, specifically 13mg/20g/BW, 26mg/20g/BW, and 52mg/20g/BW. These doses already demonstrated a substantial reduction in MDA levels following the treatment.


Conclusion: In this research, it was found that the ethanolic extract of M. calabura L leaves effectively acted as an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent in mice with hypercholesterolemia. The assessment of its anti-hypercholesterolemic properties was based on the observation of reduced MDA levels. It is suggested that the leaf extract of M. calabura L contains a compound known as phytol, which is believed to have the capacity to inhibit hypercholesterolemia in white mice (Mus musculus).

Author Biographies

Anita Lidesna Shinta Amat

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Indonesia

Herman Pieter Louis Wungouw

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Indonesia

Efrisca Meliyuita Br Damanik

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Indonesia

Prisca Pakan

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Indonesia

Desi Indriarini

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Indonesia


Prasad, K., Mishra, M. Mechanism of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2022; 23(6): 212-222.

Khan, M.D., Ahmad, M.K., Alam, R., Khan, F., Khan, M.M. Circulatory T cadherin is a potential biomarker for atherosclerosis. Biomedicine. 2022 Jul 3;42(3):417-421.

Ganjali, S., Keshavarz, R., Hosseini, S., Mansouri, A., Mannarino, M.R., Pirro, M., Jamialahmadi, T., et al., Evaluation of oxidative stress status in familial hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021;10(24): 5867-5877.

Indahsari, N.K., Aristanto, A., Rio, R. Potential of pectin in lemon’s and bali orange’s peel as anti dislipidemia and antioxidant in hypercholesterolemia rats (Rattus novergicus). Berkala Kedokteran. 2020;16(2): 149-154.

Pirinccioglu, A.G., Gokalp, D., Pirinccioglu, M., Kizil, G., Kizil, M. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels as biomarkers of oxidative stress in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia. Clinical Biochemistry. 2010; 43(15): 1220-1224.

Ashry, N.A., Abdelaziz, R.R., Suddek, G.M.,The potential effect of imatinib against hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and hepatic injury in rabbits. Life sciences. 2020; 243: 117275-117285.

Ashry, N.A., Abdelaziz, R.R., Suddek, G.M., Saleh, M. Canagliflozin ameliorates aortic and hepatic dysfunction in dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit. Life Sciences. 2021; 280: 119731-119742.

Anbukkarasi, M., Sundararajan, M., Venkadeswaran, K., Ruban, V.V., Anand, T., Geraldine, P. Antihyper- cholesterolemic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of an extract of the plant Tabernaemontana divaricata in experimental rats fed an atherogenic diet. biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology.2019;19:101115-101125.

Wu, H., He, K., Wang, Y., Xue, D., Ning, N., Zou, Z., et al., The antihypercholesterolemic effect of jatrorrhizine isolated from Rhizoma Coptidis. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(11):1373-1381.

Sadeghi, M., Kabiri, S., Amerizadeh, A., Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, K., Masoumi,G., Teimouri Jervekani, Z., et al., Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) effect on human lipid profile: An updated systematic review. Current Problems in Cardiology.2021;101072-101082.

Shaik, A.H., Shaik, N.R., Mohammed, A.K., Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, K., Masoumi, G., Teimouri-Jervekani, Z., et al., Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018;25(3):431-436.

Mohammad, H.M., Makary, S., Atef, H., El-Sherbiny, M., Atteia, H., Ibrahim, G., et al., Clopidogrel or prasugrel reduces mortality and lessens cardiovascular damage from acute myocardial infarction in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Life Sciences.2020;247:117429-117240.

El-Sayyad, H.I., El-Shershaby, E.M., El-Mansi, A.A., El-Ashry, et al., Anti-hypercholesterolemic impacts of barley and date palm fruits on the ovary of Wistar albino rats and their offspring. Reproductive Biology. 2018;18(3):236-251.

Prawitha Pinatih, P.T., Ayu Dewi, N.N., Gede Sutadarma, I.W. Green chili (Capsicum frutescens) ethanol extracts lowered triglyceride levels in rats fed with a high-fat diet. Biomedicine. 2022;42(6):1275-1280.

Kuldip, S., Harleen K, Pashaura S. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on various lipid fractions and certain liver enzymes in epileptic patients of Punjab origin. Biomedicine. 2019;39(2): 244-251.

Ganesh, B., Shivashankara, A.R., Manjunath, J. Correlation of adipokines with obesity indices and lipid profile in chronic kidney disease. Biomedicine. 2020;40(2):175-179.

Vedamanickam, R., Anandan, P., Bupesh, G., Vasanth, S. Study of millet and non-millet diet on diabetics and associated metabolic syndrome. Biomedicine.2020;40(1):55-58.




How to Cite

Lidesna Shinta Amat A, Pieter Louis Wungouw H, Meliyuita Br Damanik E, Pakan P, Indriarini D. Ethanolic extract of Muntingia calabura L. as an antihypercholesterolemic by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in white mice (Mus musculus). Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 8 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];43(5):1443-6. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics