Prevalence of target organ disease and its relation with HbA1c at the point of detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus – A cross sectional study from a tertiary care hospital in Odisha
Keywords:Diabetes, HbA1c, Target organ disease [TOD], Diabetic complications
Introduction and Aim: HbA1c is not only a valid indicator of chronic hyperglycaemia but also coincides with the increased risk of diabetic complications in the long term. This study focuses on the prevalence of target organ disease (TOD) and its relation with HbA1c at the point of detecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(T2DM).
Materials and Methods: This is a single-centre cross-sectional study done in the Department of General medicine at IMS and SUM Hospital, Odisha, between November 2020 and June 2022, including all newly diagnosed Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus patients aged > 30 years. Besides all the biochemical parameters, the demographic profile was noted in an excel sheet, and later on, using SPSS version 26, the data was analysed categorically.
Results: 148 newly diagnosed Type 2 DM patients were enrolled in the study with male predominance (54.72%). The mean age was found as 52.49±9.40 years. There were 29 (19.5%) cases of diabetic retinopathy, 39 (26.3%) diabetic neuropathy, 32(21.6%) diabetic nephropathy and 23(15.54%) left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, with a minimal number of RWMA [7 (4.72%)], Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy [9 (6.08%)] and Ischemic DCM [1(0.67%)] found as complications of newly diagnosed Diabetes mellitus patients. The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is higher in our study than in other diabetic complications, i.e., 40 (27.02%).A statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation exists between newly diagnosed Diabetes patients with higher HbA1C and serum creatinine, serum urea, microalbuminuria, and positive monofilament test.
Conclusion: This study underscores the significance of assessing target organ damage (TOD) prevalence for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) detection, highlighting the utility of HbA1c testing. HbA1c, a rapid and precise diagnostic tool, holds promise, especially in resource-limited settings, aiding in timely T2DM diagnosis and improved patient care amid the global diabetes epidemic.
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