The antagonistic effect of Anabaena circinalis on some dermatophytes


  • Zainulabdeen H. A. Al-Khafaji



GC mass, ethanolic extract, Dermatophytes, Anabaena circinalis


Introduction and Aim: Anabaena circinalis, a photosynthetic cyanobacterium belonging to the Gram-negative group, is widely distributed in freshwater ecosystems across the world. The scientific focus on A. circinalis primarily stems from its ability to produce numerous cyanotoxins, which have the potential to be hazardous. The objective of this study was to assess the antifungal efficacy of A. circinalis against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with the aim of discovering a new antifungal agent.


Methodology: The identification of Anabaena circinalis in this study was conducted through the observation of its morphological characteristics. Molecular identification and confirmation of the algae was done using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, employing a specific set of primers targeting the PCbetaand PCalpha genes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed in identifying A. circinalis antifungal compounds. The ability of 70% ethanolic and methanolic extracts produced from A. circinalis to inhibit the dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was tested by in vitro tests.


Results: The findings indicate that the hot ethanolic extract of Anabaena circinalis exhibited a significant inhibitory effect (100% inhibition) on the growth of dermatophyte fungi tested. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies identified several antifungal compounds in A. circinalis extracts, which included Hexadecen-1-ol, Phthalic acid, Octadecenoic acid, Octadecynoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid, Pentadecadien, Tetradecenal, and Octadecadien-1-ol.


Conclusion: Overall finding suggests hot ethanolic or methanolic extracts of Anabaena circinalis contain phyto components, which could be used as an antifungal agent in treating dermatophyte fungi-related infections.

Author Biography

Zainulabdeen H. A. Al-Khafaji

Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq


Champa, P., Whangchai, N., Jaturonglumlert, S., Nakao, N., Whangchai, K. Determination of phytochemical compound from Spirogyra sps using ultrasonic assisted extraction. Geomate Journal. 2016; 11(24): 2391-2396.

Yuva Rani B, Sathish Kumar T. Biopotential of microalgal extracts as a mosquito larvicide: An eco-friendly approach to control Aedes aegypti. Biomedicine. 2023;43(1):151-6.

Chandra M. Molecular characterization of fungi isolated from sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816)–St. Mary’s Island, west coast of India. Biomedicine. 2020 Nov 9;40(3):313-8.

Heo, S. J., Jeon, Y. J. Antioxidant effect and protecting effect against cell damage by enzymatic hydrolysates from marine algae. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nut., 2005; 10: 31-41.

Shameel, M. Phycochemical studies on fatty acids from certain seaweeds. Botanica Marina. 1990; 33(5): 429-432.

Al-Khafaji, Z.H.A. Antifungal activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of green alga Ulothrix sp. Bionatura, 2022; doi: 10.21931/RB/2022.07.03.47

Al-Shahery, Y. J., Alasady, I.N. Identification of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids produced by Chlorella vulgaris as a potential candidate for biodiesel production. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2021; 5(2):238-242.

Stein, J.R. Editor. Handbook of Phycological methods, culture methods and growth measurements. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 1973.

Jawad, A.L. Interactions between cyanobacteria and other microorganisms Ph.D. Thesis, Liverpool University, 1982:123-125.

Desikachary, T.V. Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 1959: 686.

Gummaa, N.R., Dwaish, A.S., Hamzah, I. H. Molecular detection of some toxigenic cyanobacteria in Tigris River in Baghdad–Iraq. Molecular Biology Reports. 2021; 48(7): 5393- 5397.

Kirthi, A.V., Ahmed, I.A., Sherif, S.H., Antibacterial activity of the extracts obtained from Eclipta alba Hassk and Andrographis lineate against human pathogens. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010; 3(10): 2529-2532.

Abu-Shanab, B., Adwan, G., Abu Safiya, D., Adwan, K.., Abu-Shanab, M. Antibacterial activity of Rhus coriaria extracts growing in Palestine. Journal of Islamic University Gaza, Palestine (Natural Sciences series).2005; 13(2):147-153.

Lokapur, V., Jayakar, V., Shantaram, M. Phytochemical investigation, chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of various crude extracts of Holigarna ferrugenia Marchand. Medicinal Plants-International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries. 2022;14(1):72-83.

Al-Khafaji, Z.H.A., Dwaish, A.S. Molecular detection of toxigenic cyanobacteria isolated from Tigris river in Baghdad city, Iraq. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 2020; 14(2): 446-450.

Jayakar, V., Lokapur, V., Shantaram, M. Identification of the volatile bioactive compounds by GC-MS analysis from the leaf extracts of Garcinia cambogia and Garcinia indica. Medicinal Plants-International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries. 2020;12(4):580-590.

Dwaish, A.S. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Enteromorpha ralfsii. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 2018; 9(10): 886-890.

Fayyad, R.J., Ali, A.N.M., Dwaish, A.S., Al-Abboodi, A.K.A. Anticancer activity of Spirulina platensis methanolic extracts against l20b and mcf7 human cancer cell lines. Plant Archives, 2019; 19: 1419-1426.

Yousef J.I. AL –Shahery, Israa N. AL- Asady. Molasses as a new nutrition medium for Scenedsmus quadricauda growth and production of some bio compounds. Bionatura. 2021; 6(4). Doi. 10.21931/RB/2021.06.04.11.

Srinivasan, G.V., Sharanappa, P., Leela, N.K., Sadashiva, C.T., Vijayan, K.K. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Leea indica (Burm.f) Merr flower. Nat. Prod. Rad., 2009; 8 :488-493.

Raman, B.V., La, S., Saradhi, M.P., Rao, B.N., Khrisna, A.N. V., Sudhakar, M., et al., Antibacterial, antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of Eupatorium odoratum. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2012;.5(2): 99-106.

Shobier, A. H., Ghani, S.A.A., Barakat, K.M. GC/MS spectroscopic Approach and antifungal potential of bioactive extracts produced by marine macroalgae. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research. 2016; 42(3):289-299.

Chandrasekaran, M., Senthilkumar, A., Venkatesalu, V. Antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of fatty acid methyl esters from the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2011;15(7):775-780.

Sindhu, L., Neelamegam, R. HPLC Determination of flavonoids in the methanol extracts of Malachra capitata (L) L. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 4(8): 1495-1503.

El-Aty, A.M.A., Mohamed, A.A., Samhan, F.A. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two fresh water cyanobacterial species, Oscillatoria agardhii and Anabaena sphaerica Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2014; 4(7):69-75.

Fayyad, R.J., Dwaish, A.S. Examination of the growth of blue green alga, Chroococcus turigidus in different traditional media formulations. Journal of College of Basic Education. 2016; 22(95): 51-60.




How to Cite

H. A. Al-Khafaji Z. The antagonistic effect of Anabaena circinalis on some dermatophytes. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 Aug. 30 [cited 2023 Oct. 4];43(4):1261-5. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics