Cardiac injury and COVID-19: A Review on available present-day literature


  • Padma V
  • Rameez B. Raja
  • Abhilash B. Nair



Heart failure, severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), corona virus disease, Angiotensin converting enzyme, injuries, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) /angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)


What started as a small cluster of viral pneumonia like cases in a province of China, in the early weeks of December, has blown out to be a full-fledged pandemic virtually affecting every continent. PubMed and Google search engines were used for literature search. The case fatality rate which is around 2.6% for corona virus disease (COVID-19) patient’s rise to nearly 10.6% in COVID-19 patients with prior cardio vascular disease. Common cardiac manifestations include heart failure and myocardial damage. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) plays an important part in the pathophysiology of heart function in hypertension and diabetes, two of the most common manifestations of heart failure and is the cellular entry point for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus. Patients with cardio vascular disease are believed to have increased secretion of ACE2 compared to healthy individuals and thus are at higher risk. Patients on medications with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) /angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) have increased ACE2 levels and may be at an increased risk, however there is no statistically significant data to substantiate this claim.

Author Biographies

Padma V

Professor, Department of Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India

Rameez B. Raja

Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India

Abhilash B. Nair

Junior Resident, Department of Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India


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How to Cite

V P, B. Raja R, Nair AB. Cardiac injury and COVID-19: A Review on available present-day literature. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2021Jan.1 [cited 2021Feb.27];40(4):420-8. Available from: