Effect of Solanum lycopersicum leaf extracts against larvicidal activity of Aedes aegypti L.
Keywords:Solanum lycopersicum, Aedes aegypti, phytochemicals, GC-MS, larvicidal activity
Introduction: Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting various life-threatening diseases all over the world and created a burden to society. Control of mosquito vectors is the key challenge to avoid disease transmission. In this regard, the present work is focused to utilize the agronomical waste of Solanum lycopersicum leaf extracts and to evaluate the larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti.
Methods: The qualitative and quantitative screening of S. lycopersicum leaf extracts were carried out. The larvicidal activity of different concentrations were assessed against 3rd instar Ae. aegypti and to determine the morphological effects. The chemical constituents were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).
Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of S. lycopersicum leaf extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols and flavonoids. The methanol extract exhibited strong larvicidal activity at 48h treatment with an LC50 value of 20.323mg/ml. The morphological changes revealed that abnormal movement and coiling of treated larvae at 24h. Furthermore, severe damage was noticed in the digestive and respiratory tract of Ae. aegypti larvae at 48h, later on complete mortality was observed. The GC-MS analysis of methanol extract showed chemical constituents such as phytol acetate (42.66%), neophytadiene (29.38%) and other minor compounds.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that methanolic leaf extract of S. lycopersicum could be an alternative source to control mosquito vectors and further investigation is strongly suggested in order to utilise this source in many disease-endemic areas.
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