Grading of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in cytology and its association with ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters
Keywords:Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, cytology, AntiTPO
Introduction and Aim: In the post-iodization period, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is most likely the most prevalent cause of goitre and hypothyroidism, particularly in women of reproductive years. This study was undertaken to grade HT on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology smears and determine their usefulness in predicting thyroid damage in association with clinical history, radiological and biochemical findings.
Materials and Methods: Total of 151 cases were diagnosed cytologically in duration of over 2 years as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis/lymphocytic thyroiditis. Cytology scoring technique was used to analyse smears and were correlated with radiological, biochemical findings and were evaluated statistically by ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis tests.
Results: In the current study, the most frequent group of individuals with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were between the ages of 40 and 50. Females (145 cases, 96%) were commonly affected and the commonest presentation was a diffuse (125 cases ,82.8%) thyroid enlargement. Cytological grading of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis were as follows,54 (35.8%) patients were Grade I, 81(53.6%) patients were Grade II thyroiditis and 16 (10.6%) patients were Grade III thyroiditis. Biochemically, 78 (56.5%) of the cases were hypothyroid, 51 (37%), euthyroid, and 9 (6.5%) were hyperthyroid. Ultrasonography revealed 76 (50.3%) patients with hypoechoic micronodules, 71 (47%) with echogenic septae, 101 (66.9%) with increased vascularity, and 6 (4%) with normal findings. The grades of lymphocytic thyroiditis and the biochemical data were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001). Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between the grades and specific ultrasound findings, such as echogenic septae (p=0.042) and diffuse hypoechogenicity (p=0.046).
Conclusion: Cytological scoring system in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can predict thyroid functional status and aid in determining the severity of the disease.
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