Development of a composite food using dephytinized grains through probiotic fermentation
Keywords:Phytic acid, cereals and pulses, phytase, Lactobacillus, composite food
Introduction and Aim: Over three billion people are malnourished globally, due to inconsistent supply of foods with essential nutrients due to presence of antinutrients in most plant foods. Phytic acid, an antinutrient in plant products binds to proteins and minerals, making them unavailable for absorption and leading to malnourishment. The present investigation aimed at screening of phytase producing probiotic strains that can reduce phytic acid content from commonly used cereals and pulses through fermentation and to develop a composite food.
Methods and Materials: Probiotic strains were isolated from probiotic capsule, curd, fruits like apple, orange, tomato, grape, pomegranate and chikoo. The isolates were then screened for production of phytase on MRS medium containing calcium phytate along with a positive strain Lactobacillus plantarum.
Results: Out of 13 strains only 2 strains were found positive for phytase (isolate 6 and 7). Preliminary biochemical studies indicated that the isolates are Lactobacillus spp. There was a considerable reduction in phytic acid content in rice, wheat, ragi, barley, green gram, horse gram, chickpea and soybean after fermentation. Lactobacillus plantarum reduced phytic acid (16.1- 90.02%) in all cereals and pulses used. However, isolate 6 could reduce 91.3% phytic acid in wheat which was significantly more than the positive control strain. A functional food was formulated using fermented cereals and pulses in the ratio 3:1 respectively.
Conclusion: Both Lactobacillus plantarum and isolate 6 showed significant results in reducing phytic acid. However, their efficacy needs to be confirmed through in-vivo studies and also sensory evaluation for superior nutritional quality and safety of the formulation.
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