Synthesis, characterization of Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanocomposite and evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy


  • Jenan Hussein Taha



Root canal treatment, calcium hydroxide, titanium oxide, Ca (OH)2TiO2 nanoparticles


Introduction and Aim: Root canal treatment is a dental operation that entails the extraction of the compromised tooth pulp tissue, sterilization of the root canal system, and subsequent filling with an inert substance. To mitigate the potential for bacterial infections and subsequent difficulties, it is customary for patients to receive a prescription for antibiotics prior to undergoing a root canal procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2: TiO2 nanoparticles as a potential substitute for antibiotics in root canal therapies, while also investigating their antibacterial properties against specific infections.


Materials and Methods: Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized chemically using calcium hydroxide and varying concentrations of titanium oxide powder by a sol-gel process. The Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized was characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans spp.) by gel diffusion method.


Results:  FE-SEM analysis indicated that the Ca (OH)2: TiO2 composite material exhibited an amorphous structure, characterized by a particle size measuring 25.88 nm. But FTIR was focused on the spectral region between 4000 and 450 cm-1. The absorption spectra of nanoparticles composed of titanium dioxide consistently displayed a prominent peak at a wavelength of 300 nm. The results of the experiment pertaining to the biological effects of composites suggest that the inclusion of TiO2 nanoparticles at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 75% in the composite material led to a notably wider inhibitory zone in comparison to the use of Ca(OH)2 alone, with a statistically significant p-value of 0.05.


Conclusion: The use of varying concentrations of Ca (OH)2TiO2 improves microbial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Candida.

Author Biography

Jenan Hussein Taha

Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Al- Nahrain, Baghdad, Iraq


Yousefshahi, H., M. Aminsobhani, M. Shokri, R. Shahbazi, Antibacterial properties of calcium hydroxide in combination with silver, copper, zinc oxide or magnesium oxide. Eur J Transl Myol. 2018; 28(3):274-279.

Rasheed, Z. Water temperature effect on hardness and flexural strength of (PMMA/TiO2 NPs) for dental applications. Baghdad Sci. J. 2022;19(4): 922-923.

Al-Saidi, M., Al-Bana, R.J.A., Hassan, E., AL-Rubaii, B.A.L., Extraction and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from hibiscus plant using green technology and study of its antibacterial activity. Biomedicine. 2022; 42(6):1290-1295.

Jalil, I.S., Mohammad, S.Q., Mohsen, A.K., Al-Rubaii, B.A.L., Inhibitory activity of Mentha spicata oils on biofilms of Proteus mirabilis isolated from burns. Biomedicine. 2023; 43(02):748-752.

Byström, A., Sundqvist, G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the efficacy of mechanical root canal instrumentation in endodontic therapy; Scand J Dent Res. 1981; 89:321-328.

Tanomaru Filho, M., Leonardo, M., da Silva, L. Effect of irrigating solution and calcium hydroxide root canal dressing on the repair of apical and periapical tissues of teeth with the periapical lesion. J Endod. 2002;28:295-299.

Portenier, I., Haapasalo, H., Rye, A., Waltimo, T. Haapasalo, Inactivation of root canal medicaments by dentine, hydroxylapatite and bovine serum albumin. Int Endod J. 2001; 34:184-188.

Afkhami, F., Pourhashemi, S., Sadegh, M., Salehi, Y., Fard, M. Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles as a vehicle for calcium hydroxide medicament against Enterococcus faecalis. J Dent. 2015; 43:1573-1579.

Javidi, M., Afkhami, F., Zarei, M., Ghazvini, K. Efficacy of a combined nanoparticulate/calcium hydroxide root canal medication on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis. Aust Endod J. 2014; 40:61-65.

Saifaldeen, A. K and Entisar, V. Exciting new nanocomposite using the solar energy to remove BG dye pollutants from wastewater. 2nd International Conference in Physical Science and Advanced Materials AIP Conf. 2021, Proc. 2372; 100007-1–100007-8.

Abass, E, Sondos, Zair, K. Thamera Mohammud, A. Saga Nagem, Recovery of pure hesperidin from Iraqi sweet oranges peel and study the effect in some bacteria. J. Baghdad for Sci.2014; 11(2):145-155.

Abdullah, A., Fayyadh, A. Fadhel Essa, S. Shammon Batros, Z. Studying the crystal structure, topography, and antibacterial of a novel Titania (TiO2NPs) prepared by a sol-gel manner. Baghdad Sci. J. 2019; 16 (4)78-86.

Jha, S., Singh, R., Pandey, A., Bhardwaj, M., Tripathi, S., Mishra, R. Bacterial toxicological assay of calcium oxide nanoparticles against some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Int. J. Res. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol.2018, 6: 460-466.

Alwash, A. The Green synthesis of zinc oxide catalyst using pomegranate peels extract for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye; Baghdad Scie. J.2020; 17(3):787-794.

Bala, N., Saha, S., Chakraborty, M., Maiti, M., Das, S. Nandy, Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using Hibiscus subdariffa leaf extract: Effect of temperature on synthesis, antibacterial activity, and antidiabetic activity. RSC Adv. 2015; 5:4993-5003.

Abadi A. H., Al-Abodi, E. E. A review article: Green synthesis by using different plants to prepare oxide nanoparticles; IHJPAS. 2023; 36(1):56-63.

Ali Salman, R. Histopathological effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on kidney and liver tissues in albino male mice; Ibn Al-Haitham J. Pure and Appl. Sci. 2018;13 (3):35-44.

Mostafa, M., Alrowaili, A., Al Shehri, M. Structural and optical properties of calcium titanate prepared from gypsum; J. Nanotechnology.2022; Article ID 6020378, 9 pp.

Kumar, A., Jha, S., Kumar, A., Kumar, S. Innovative investigation of zinc oxide nanoparticles used in dentistry. Crystals. 2022; 12(8):1063-1074.

AL-Dhahir, T.A., Entisar AL-Abodi, E., Tagreed. M. ZnO nanoparticles: Synthesis and crystal structure study. Wasit J. Sci. and Med. 2014;7(3):87-95.

Jayaram Babu, N., Kumari, S., Rao, K., Prabhu, Y. Germination and growth characteristics of mungbean seeds (Vignaradiata L.) affected by synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles. Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol. 2014; 4: 3411-3416.

Ahlaam, J., Entisar Al-Abodi, E., Bushra Hussein, H. Investigation of the optical and electrical properties of composites of PVA-PVP-PEG/ZnO Nanoparticles. J. Eng. Applied Sci. 2019; 14(16): 5819-5826.

Melo, M., Guedes, S., Xu, H., Rodrigues, L. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31:459-467.

Samiei, M., Torab, A., Hosseini, O., Abbasi, T., Ardalan Abdollahi, A. Divband, B. Antibacterial effect of two nano zinc oxide gel preparations compared to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine mixture. Iran Endod J. 2018;13(3):305-331.

Souza Aguiar, A. Guerreiro-Tanomaru, G. Faria, R. Toledo Leonardo, M. Tanomaru-Filho, J. M. Antimicrobial activity and pH of calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles intracanal medication and association with chlorhexidine. The J. Contemporary Dental Practice. 2015;16(8):624-629.




How to Cite

Hussein Taha J. Synthesis, characterization of Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanocomposite and evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 9 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];43(5):1496-501. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics