Synthesis, characterization of Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanocomposite and evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy
Keywords:Root canal treatment, calcium hydroxide, titanium oxide, Ca (OH)2TiO2 nanoparticles
Introduction and Aim: Root canal treatment is a dental operation that entails the extraction of the compromised tooth pulp tissue, sterilization of the root canal system, and subsequent filling with an inert substance. To mitigate the potential for bacterial infections and subsequent difficulties, it is customary for patients to receive a prescription for antibiotics prior to undergoing a root canal procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2: TiO2 nanoparticles as a potential substitute for antibiotics in root canal therapies, while also investigating their antibacterial properties against specific infections.
Materials and Methods: Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized chemically using calcium hydroxide and varying concentrations of titanium oxide powder by a sol-gel process. The Ca (OH)2: TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized was characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans spp.) by gel diffusion method.
Results: FE-SEM analysis indicated that the Ca (OH)2: TiO2 composite material exhibited an amorphous structure, characterized by a particle size measuring 25.88 nm. But FTIR was focused on the spectral region between 4000 and 450 cm-1. The absorption spectra of nanoparticles composed of titanium dioxide consistently displayed a prominent peak at a wavelength of 300 nm. The results of the experiment pertaining to the biological effects of composites suggest that the inclusion of TiO2 nanoparticles at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 75% in the composite material led to a notably wider inhibitory zone in comparison to the use of Ca(OH)2 alone, with a statistically significant p-value of 0.05.
Conclusion: The use of varying concentrations of Ca (OH)2TiO2 improves microbial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Candida.
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