Isolation and characterization of an antibacterial compound Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from the fungi Penicillium digitatum


  • Mohammed A. Abd Ali
  • Asaad O. Darweesh
  • Muthanna M. Matar



Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate derivatives, Spectroscopic analysis,, Penicillium digitatum, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic resistance


Introduction and Aim: Penicillium is a fungal antibiotic derived from Penicillium notatum. In this study, we aimed to isolate the antibacterial compound Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from the fungi Penicillium digitatum, as well as study its antibacterial activity against the the pathogens Escherichia coli,Group B Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus.  


Materials and Methods: The identification of Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-containing secondary metabolite was achieved through bioassay-guided chemical analysis of the crude extract. The structure of the compound was identified from UV spectra, IR, and GC-MS spectral data. The antimicrobial activity of Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, isolated from the fungus Penicillium digitatum, was determined using standard methods.


Results: UV, IR, and GC-MS spectroscopy confirmed the crude extract of fungi Penicillium digitatum to contain the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and bis(ethylhexyl) phthalate. The MIC value of the bioactive molecule was also determined to be 32 mg/ml. The P. digitatum ethyl acetate extract showed moderate antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacterial isolate Escherichia coli and high activity against the Gram positive pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus.


Conclusion:  The fungi Penicillium digitatum produces the metabolite Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram-negative pathogens and hence could be used in treating infections by these bacterial pathogens.

Author Biographies

Mohammed A. Abd Ali

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Misan, Amarah, Iraq

Asaad O. Darweesh

Education Directorate of Basra, Ministry of Education,  Iraq

Muthanna M. Matar

Education Directorate of Thi-Qar, Ministry of Education, Iraq


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How to Cite

A. Abd Ali M, O. Darweesh A, M. Matar M. Isolation and characterization of an antibacterial compound Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from the fungi Penicillium digitatum. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 9 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];43(5):1607-12. Available from:



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