Influence of fish on biochemical markers: A comparative study among male subjects of fish eaters and vegetarians


  • Asha Prabhu
  • Kedilaya H. P.
  • Manjula Shantaram



Fish eaters, vegetarians, lipid profile, hs-CRP, Lp(a), cardiovascular disease


Introduction and Aim:  Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in India. Intake of a high or moderate amount of fish has shown a decreased risk of CVD. This is due to the presence of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oils. According to past studies, regularly consuming these fatty acids lowers the risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, arrhythmias, and sudden death. The beneficial effects of a fish-rich diet appear to conflict with PUFA's susceptibility to oxidation. As a result, the study aimed to compare the lipid profile, cardiac markers, and lipid peroxidation status in male adults who consume moderate amounts of fish regularly.


Materials and Methods: Total cholesterol (T.C.), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (T.G.), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP),  Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant activity (AOA) were measured in healthy male individual of 85 fish eaters and 77 vegetarians in the age group of 25-40 years. The atherogenic indices TC/ HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, a Student's 't' test, and non-HDL-C/ HDL-C were determined. The two groups' parameters were compared using the Student's t-test.


Results: In Fish eating male subjects, the lipid profile and cardiac markers were decreased except for HDL-C (which was increased). Fish eaters exhibited significant decreases in atherogenic indices, and significant variation was not observed in the oxidant status of the study groups (p>0.05).


Conclusion: According to the present study's findings, regular intake of moderate amounts of fish is linked to a decrease in lipid profiles and cardiac markers without affecting the individual's oxidation status.

Author Biographies

Asha Prabhu

Department of Biochemistry, Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Srinivasnagar, Mukka, Surathkal, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Yenepoya University,  Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Kedilaya H. P.

Department of Biochemistry, Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Srinivasnagar, Mukka, Surathkal, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Manjula Shantaram

A. J. Research Centre, A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Yenepoya University,  Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India


Al-Hadidi, E.E, Al-Obaidi, W.M. Assessment of asprosin level and some of physiological variables in patients with cardiovascular diseases in Kirkuk city, Iraq. Biomedicine. 2022 Nov 14;42(5):973-977.

Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barben, R.M., Bhutta, Z.A., Cartel, et al., Global, regional, and national life expectancy, All-Cause mortality, and Cause-specific Mortality for 249 causes of death. 1980-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2015. Lancet. 2016; 388(10053): 1459-1544.

Roth, G.A., Johnson, C., Abajobir, A., Abd-Allh, F., Abera, S.F., et al., Global, regional, and national burden of cardiovascular diseases for 10 causes, 1990 to 2015. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 70:(1)1-25.

Soman, S., Kar, S.S., Satheesh, S., Ramalingam, A. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiling Among First Degree Relatives of Coronary Artery Disease Patients Admitted in Cardiology Ward of JIPMER, Puduchery. J Cardiovasc. Disease. Res.2016;7 (3):108-111.

Joshi, R., Cardona, M., Iyengar, S., Sukumar, A., Raju, C.R., Raju, K.R., et al., Chronic diseases now a leading cause of death in rural India–mortality data from the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(6):1522-1529.

Misra, A., Sharma, R., Pandey, R.M., Khanna, N. Adverse profile of dietary nutrients, anthropometry and lipids in urban slum dwellers of northern India. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001; 55(9):727-734.

Kulkarni, V., Shetty, S., Bhandary, R., Chakraborty, A., Subramanya, K. Role of serum lipoprotein (a) and its gene polymorphisms in cardiovascular burden among Indians: Coincidental association or causal relationship?. Biomedicine. 2022 Dec 31;42(6):1122-1127.

Kondreddy R, Chenak A, Akula US, Garabet A, Srikumar S, Jarari AM, Peela JR. Study of lipid profile in coronary heart disease patients in Libya. Journal of Biomedical Sciences.2012;1(43):1-9.

Chakraborty, A., Prabhu, M. M., Stanley, W. Improving the existing cardiovascular risk scoring systems for better prediction in type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without coronary artery disease: A cross sectional study. Biomedicine. 2021 Sep 7;41(2):454-457.

Kulkarni, J., Phalak, J., Study of oxidative stress and lipid profile in coronary artery diseases. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2013;4(2):624-627.

Galli, C., Rise, P. Fish consumption, Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease. The Science and the Clinical Trials. Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2009;20(1):11-20.

Nicolantonio, J.J., Niazi, A.K., McCarly, M.F., Kerfe, J.H., Meier, P., Lavie, C.J. Omega-3s and cardiovascular Health. The osch. J. 2014; 14(3): 399-412.

Balakumar, P. Taneja, G. Fish oil and vascular endothelial protection: Bench to bedside. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2012; 53(2):271-279.

Varashree, B.S., Bhat, G.P. Correlation of Lipid Peroxidation with Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in Diabetes Mellitus. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2011; 10(2):11.

Allain, C.C., Poon, L.S., Chan, C.S., Richmond, W., Fu, P.C. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974;20(4):470-475.

Tavia, G., William, P., Castelli, M.D., Marthana, C.H., William, B.K., Thomas, R.D. High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart disease the Framingham study. The American Journal of Medicine. 1977; 62: 707-713.

Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride and coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991;11(1):2-14.

Kamel, M., Barkia, A., Hamdaoui, M., Ketata, H., Kassis, M., Nasri, M., Aouidet, A. Comparison of some anthropometric and biologic parameters in two groups of tunision infants. Afr J Biotechnol.2011;10(20):4005-4010.

Jacobs N. J., Van Denmark, P.J., Arch. Biochem Biophys. 1960; 88: 250-255.

Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN,Pepys MB. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 1990; 149(6): 424-427.

Frank S., Durovic S., Kostner GM. Eur J Clin Invest 1996; 26 (2): 109-114.

Qi, K., Fan, C., Jiang, J., Zhu, H., Jiao, H., Meng, Q., et al., Omega-3 fatty acid containing diets decrease plasma triglyceride concentrations in mice by reducing endogenous triglyceride synthesis and enhancing the blood clearance of triglyceride-rich particles. Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;27(3):424-430.

Zibaeenezhad, M.J., Ghavipisheh, M., Attar, A., Aslani, A. Comparison of the effect of omega-3 supplements and fresh fish on lipid profile: a randomized, open-labeled trial. Nutr Diabetes. 2017 Dec19;7(12):1.

Zhu, W., Dong, C., Du, H., Zhang, H., Chen, J., Hu, X., Hu, F. Effects of fish oil on serum lipid profile in dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2014;13(1):1-1.

Nanri, A., Yoshida, D., Yamaji, T., Mizoue, T., Takayanagi, R., Kono, S. Dietary patterns and C-reactive protein in Japanese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1488-1496.

Marcovina, S.M., Kennedy, H., Bittolo, B. G., Cazzolato, G., Galli, C., Casiglia E, Puato M, Pauletto P. Fish intake, independent of apo(a) size, accounts for lower plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in Bantu fishermen of Tanzania: The Lugalawa Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999 May;19(5):1250-1256.

Cariappa, M., Poornima, K., Nandini, M., Asha, K., Kedilaya, H.P.Oxidant status and lipid profile in vegetarians and fish eaters.Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2005; 20 (1): 103-108.

Mabile, L., Piolot, A., Boulet, L., Fortin, L.J., Doyle, N., Rodriguez, C., et al., Moderate intake of n-3 fatty acids is associated with stable erythrocyte resistance to oxidative stress in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):449-456.

Likidlid, A., Patchanans, N., Peerapatdit, T., Sriratanasathavorn, C. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes of type 2 diabetic patients. Med Assoc Thai. 2010; 93(6):682-693.




How to Cite

Prabhu A, H. P. K, Shantaram M. Influence of fish on biochemical markers: A comparative study among male subjects of fish eaters and vegetarians. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2023 Aug. 30 [cited 2023 Oct. 4];43(4):1162-5. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics 

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>