Risk of fractures in patients with osteoporosis associated with chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Keywords:Chronic heart failure, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, type 2 diabetes mellitus, postmenopausal women, loop diuretics
Introduction and Aim: Although the pathophysiological processes underlying the association between congestive heart failure (CHF) and osteoporosis (OP) are unknown, there is evidence that several changes observed in CHF may play a role in bone loss. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 (sR1-TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF-alpha receptor 2 (sR2-TNF-alpha) on the risk of fractures in patients with OP associated with CHF and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: This study included 178 women aged 50–65 years, divided into four groups. Group 1 consisted of 48 women diagnosed with HF and T2DM. Group 2 included 93 patients with OP and HF. Group 3 consisted of 37 women with OP, HF, and T2DM.
Results: The levels of sR1-TNF-alpha and sR2-TNF-alpha in patient groups 1 through 3 were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.01). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that patients in group 3 had much greater levels of both receptors than those in groups 1 and 2.
Conclusion: High levels of sR1-TNF-alpha and sR2-TNF-alpha in postmenopausal women with CHF are associated with an increased risk of a poor outcome during OP.
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