Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: A brief review with future prospects


  • Jyotirmayee Bahinipati Departments of Biochemistry, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  • Rajlaxmi Sarangi Departments of Biochemistry, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  • Sanjukta Mishra Departments of Biochemistry, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  • Srikrushna Mahapatra Departments of Biochemistry, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India



Genome, metabolome, proteome, nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics


Individual’s genetic makeup best describes the properties regarding its growth and development. It is stored and passed on to generations and is in dynamic equilibrium with the environmental and other non-living factors. The most predominant environmental stimuli are diet/nutrition.  Diet/nutrition interacts and modulates varying underlying molecular mechanisms central to various physiological functions basically at three different levels: genome, proteome, and metabolome. Advances in genomic studies are paving the way to the development of scientific insights into nutritional sciences. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are closely associated but two different areas of nutritional research. Both the fields involved the study of the implication between nutrition, metabolism, and genetic mechanism. The primary goal is to pinpoint nutrient-dependent health characteristics and nutrition dependent diseases. Another important area connected to these sciences concerns food composition and performance of quality assessment by studying proteomics and metabolic pathways. Nutrigenomics explains how the nutrients influences or effects the expression of the, while the response of different gene variants to nutrients or different dietary components is called Nutrigenetics. A personalized based diet can help us to know the right nutrient to take or avoid those who may potentially harm overall health. The goals are intended to alter or decrease the impact of hostile dietary changes that have occurred in since past in the developed world and more recently in the developing countries.

Author Biography

Jyotirmayee Bahinipati, Departments of Biochemistry, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Associate Professor, Dept.of Biochemistry, KIMS, KIIT University, Odisha.


Forouhi, N. G., Unwin, N. Global diet, and health: old questions, fresh evidence, and new horizons.2019; 393: 1916-1918.

Background of global burden of chronic diseases.

Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAOexpertconsultation. https://www.who. int/publications/i/item/924120916X.

Patel, S. A., Cunningham, S. A., Tandon, N., Narayan, K.M.V. Chronic Diseases in India-Ubiquitous Across the Socioeconomic Spectrum. JAMA Netw Open. 2019; 2(4): e190404.

Chilton, F. H., Dutta, R., Reynolds, L. M., Sergeant, S., Mathias, R. A., Seeds, M. C. Precision nutrition and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: A case for personalized supplementation approaches for the prevention and management of human diseases. Nutrients. 2017; 9(11): 1165.

Mullins, V. A., Bresette, W., Jhonstone, L., Hallmark, B., Chilton, F. H. Genomics in personalized nutrition: can you “eat for your genes”. Nutrients. 2020; 12: 3118-3143.

Garg, R., Sharma, N., Jain, S. K. Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics: Concepts and Applications in Nutrition Research and Practice. Acta Medica International. 2014; 1(2): 124-130.

Fenech, M., El-Sohemy, A., Cahill, L., Ferguson, French T.A.C., Tai, E. S., et al., Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: viewpoints on the current status and applications in nutrition research and practice. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011; 4(2): 69-89.

Miggiano, G. A., De Sanctis, R. Nutritional genomics: toward a personalized diet. Clin Ter. 2006; 157(4): 355-361.

Mutch, D. M, Wahli, W., Williamson, G. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics: Emerging faces of nutrition. FASEB J. 2005; 19(12): 1602-1616.

Martínez, J. A., Milagro, F. I., Claycombe, K. J., Schalinske, K. L. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes. Adv Nutr. 2014; 5(1): 71-81.

Ferguson, L. R. Nutrigenomics approaches to functional foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109(3): 452-458.

Simopoulos, A. P. Nutrigenomics/Nutrigenomics. Annu Rev Public Health. 2010; 31: 53-68.

Li, W. D., Dong, C., Li, D., Garrigan, C., Price, R. A. A quantitative trait locus influencing fasting plasma glucose in chromososme 18q22-23. Diabetes. 2004; 53(9): 2487-2491.

Van der Greef, J., Stroobant, P., Van Der Heijden, R. The role of analytical sciences medical systems biology. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2004; 8(5): 559-565.

Tinelli, C., Pino, A. D., Ficulle, E., Marcelli, S., Feligioni, M. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor and potential nutraceutical target for certain pathologies. Front Nutr. 2019; 6: 49.

Blom, H. J., Smulders, Y., Overview of homocysteine and folate metabolism. With special references to cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011; 34(1): 75-81.

Wauters, M., Mertens, I., Chagnon, M., Rankinen, T., Considine, R. V., Chagnon, Y. C., et al. Polymorphisms in the leptin receptor gene, body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25(5): 714-720.

Pang, A. W., MacDonald, J. R., Pinto, D., Wei, J., Rafiq, M. A., Conrad, D. F., et al., Towards a comprehensive structural variation map of an individual human genome. Genome Biol 2010; 11(5): R52.

Chen, L., Zhou, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, F. Genome architecture and its roles in human copy number variation. Genomics Inform. 2014; 12(4): 136-144.

Frayling, T. M., Timpson, N. J., Weedon, M. N., Zeggini, E., Freathy, R. M., Lindgren, C. M., et al., A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science. 2007; 316(5826): 889-894.

Lu, Y., Tayebi, N., Li, H., Saha, N., Yang, H., Heng, C.K. Association of CETP Taq1B and -629C; A polymorphisms with coronary artery disease and lipid levels in the multi-ethnic Singaporean population. Lipids Health Dis. 2013; 12: 85.

Xu, J., Wise, C., Varma, V., Fang, H., Ning, B., Hong, H., et al., Two new Array Track libraries for personalized biomedical research. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010; 11(suppl 6): S6.

Jiang-Hua, Q., De-Chuang, J., Zhen-Duo, L., Shu-de, C., Zhenzhen, L. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes. Tumour Biol 2014; 35(12): 11895-11901.

Casas-Agustench, P., Arnett, D. K., Smith, C. E., Lai, C. Q., Parnell, L. D., Borecki, I. B., et al., Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114(12): 1954-1966.

Huang, T., Ley, S. H., Zheng, Y., Wang, T., Bray, G. A, Sacks, F. M., et al., Genetic susceptibility to diabetes and long-term improvement of insulin resistance and ? cell function during weight loss: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 104(1): 198-204.

Nielsen, D. E., El-Sohemy, A. Disclosure of genetic information and change in dietary intake: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2014; 9(11): e112665.

Edenberg, H. J. The genetics of alcohol metabolism: role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. Alcohol Res Health. 2007; 30(1): 5-13.

Baturin, A. K., Sorokina, E., Pogozheva, A. V., Tutelian, V. A. Genetic approaches to nutrition personalization (in Russian). Vopr Pitan. 2012; 81(6): 4-11.

Bouchard-Mercier, A., Paradis, A. M., Rudkowska, I., Lemieux, S., Couture, P., Vohl, M. C. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. Nutr J. 2013; 12: 24.

Vo, T. X., Revesz, A., Sohi, G., Ma, N., Hardy, D. B. Maternal protein restriction leads to enhanced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in adult male rat offspring due to impaired expression of the liver X receptor. J Endocrinol. 2013; 218(1): 85-97.

Tryndyak, V., de Conti, A., Kobets, T., Kutanzi, K., Koturbash, I., Han, T., et al., Interstrain differences in the severity of liver injury induced by a choline- and folate-deficient diet in mice are associated with dysregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. FASEB J. 2012; 26(11): 4592-4602.

Huerta, A. E., Prieto-Hontoria, P. L., Sáinz, N., Martínez, J. A, Moreno-Aliaga, M. J. Supplementation with ?-lipoic acid alone or in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid modulates the inflammatory status of healthy overweight or obese women consuming an energy-restricted diet. J Nutr. 2015; 146(4): 889S-896S.

Cao, F., Liu, T., Xu, Y., Xu, D., Feng, S. Curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human osteoclastoma cell through MMP-9, NF-?B and JNK signaling pathways. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015; 8(6): 6037-6045.

Miller M. American Heart Association Clinical Lipidology, thrombosis, and prevention committee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism; council on arteriosclerosis, thrombosis and vascular biology; council on cardiovascular nursing; council on the kidney in cardiovascular disease. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011; 123: 2292-333.

Duthie, S.J. Epigenetic modifications and human pathologies: cancer and CVD. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70(1):47-56.

Sohi, G., Marchand, K., Revesz, A., Arany, E., Hardy, D. B. Maternal protein restriction elevates cholesterol in adult rat offspring due to repressive changes in histone modifications at the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2011; 25(5): 785-798.

Tryndyak, V. P, Marrone, A. K., Latendresse, J. R., Muskhelishvili, L., Beland, F. A., Pogribny, I. P. MicroRNA changes, activation of progenitor cells and severity of liver injury in mice induced by choline and folate deficiency. J Nutr Biochem. 2016; 28: 83-90.

Takaya, J., Iharada, A., Okihana, H., Kaneko, K. A calcium-deficient diet in pregnant, nursing rats induces hypomethylation of specific cytosines in the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 promoter in pup liver. Nutr Res. 2013; 33(11): 961-970.

Takaya, J., Iharada, A., Okihana, H., Kaneko, K. Magnesium deficiency in pregnant rats alters methylation of specific cytosines in the hepatic hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter of the offspring. Epigenetics. 2011; 6(5): 573-578.

Milagro, F. I., Gómez-Abellán, P., Campión, J., Martínez, J. A., Ordovás, J. M., Garaulet, M. CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 DNA methylation: association with obesity and metabolic syndrome characteristics and monounsaturated fat intake. Chronobiol Int. 2012; 29(9): 1180-1194.




How to Cite

Bahinipati J, Sarangi R, Mishra S, Mahapatra S. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: A brief review with future prospects. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2021Dec.31 [cited 2022Jan.20];41(4):714-9. Available from: