The role of immune mediators in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection
Keywords:Hepatitis B virus, cytokines, interleukin, interferons
Introduction and Aim: Viral hepatitis, is considered a major cause of cirrhosis and liver transplantation, both of which are life-threatening conditions. In comparison to Hepatitis C virus infection, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a lower rate of chronicity. The purpose of this study is to assess the immunological particles CD2 and CD4, as well as the cytokines IL-10, in HBV-infected patients.
Materials and Methods: Between April and June 2021, a case-control study was conducted on 180 female subjects with a mean age of 35 years who visited a private clinic in Mosul city. A (10 ml) sample of blood was collected from each subject by routine venipuncture technique, and the blood sample was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 minutes to separate the plasma, which was used for further investigations. The ELISA test was used to determine the sizes of cytokines in the serum (R&D Systems). A microplate reader was used to limit absorbance in copies (Beckman Coulter). The last concentration was measured in pg/ml.
Results: The findings of this study revealed that (15%) of cases had clinical symptoms of HBV, while (70%) of cases were asymptomatic, and (5%) of cases progressed to chronic liver disease. In compared to healthy control groups, HBV patients had highly significant variations in mean CD 2 and CD 4 expression (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: During the acute phase of hepatitis, the immune system successfully fights off the infection; however, differences in immune responses to different viruses may explain the tendency for acute infection to resolve rather than develop to chronic infection. Hepatitis viruses employ a variety of tactics to evade human immunity. To fully comprehend the complicated interplay between immunological mediators and HBV infection, more research is needed.
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