The role of immune mediators in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection


  • Hana Abdul-Qader Khuder College of Medicine, Ninevah University, Mosul, Iraq



Hepatitis B virus, cytokines, interleukin, interferons


Introduction and Aim: Viral hepatitis, is considered a major cause of cirrhosis and liver transplantation, both of which are life-threatening conditions. In comparison to Hepatitis C virus infection, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a lower rate of chronicity. The purpose of this study is to assess the immunological particles CD2 and CD4, as well as the cytokines IL-10, in HBV-infected patients.

Materials and Methods: Between April and June 2021, a case-control study was conducted on 180 female subjects with a mean age of 35 years who visited a private clinic in Mosul city. A (10 ml) sample of blood was collected from each subject by routine venipuncture technique, and the blood sample was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 minutes to separate the plasma, which was used for further investigations. The ELISA test was used to determine the sizes of cytokines in the serum (R&D Systems). A microplate reader was used to limit absorbance in copies (Beckman Coulter). The last concentration was measured in pg/ml.


Results: The findings of this study revealed that (15%) of cases had clinical symptoms of HBV, while (70%) of cases were asymptomatic, and (5%) of cases progressed to chronic liver disease. In compared to healthy control groups, HBV patients had highly significant variations in mean CD 2 and CD 4 expression (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: During the acute phase of hepatitis, the immune system successfully fights off the infection; however, differences in immune responses to different viruses may explain the tendency for acute infection to resolve rather than develop to chronic infection. Hepatitis viruses employ a variety of tactics to evade human immunity. To fully comprehend the complicated interplay between immunological mediators and HBV infection, more research is needed.


Westin, J., Aleman, S., Castedal, M., Duberg, A. S., Eilard, A., Fischler, B., et al., Management of hepatitis B virus infection, updated Swedish guidelines. Infect Dis (Lond) 2020; 52: 1-22.

Rasheed, H. N., Mohamad, H. S., Amin, A. L., Ahmed, T. A. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Int J Infect. 2017; 4(1): e39008.

Hutin, Y., Desai, S., Bulterys, M. Preventing hepatitis B virus infection: milestones and targets. Bull World Health Organ. 2018; 96(7): 443- 443A.

?nan, N., Tabak, F. Hepatitis B virus: Biology and life cycle. J. Viral Hepat. 2015; 21(1): 1-7.

Iqbal, K., Klevens, R. M., Kainer, M. A., Baumgartner, J., Gerard, K., Poissant, T., et al., Epidemiology of acute Hepatitis B in the United States from population-based surveillance, 2006-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2015; 61(4): 584-592.

Ismail, S. A., Cuadros, D. F., Benova, L. Hepatitis B in Egypt: A cross-sectional analysis of prevalence and risk factors for active infection from a nationwide survey. Liver Int. 2017; 37(12): 1814-1822.

Jia, W., Qi, X., Ji, Y.Y., Xun, Y.H., Wang, H., Zhang, W.H., et al., Low Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level Predicts Compensated Cirrhosis Caused by Chronic Hepatitis B in HBeAg Positive Patients in East China. Hepat Mon. 2015; 15(8): e29183.

Kania, D., Ottomani, L., Meda, N., Peries, M., Dujols, P., Bolloré, K., et al., Performance of two real-time PCR assays for hepatitis B virus DNA detection and quantitation. J Virol Methods. 2014 Jun; 201: 24-30.

Keane, E., Funk, A. L., Shimakawa, Y. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016; 44(10): 1005-1017.

Kramvis, A. The clinical implications of hepatitis B virus genotypes and HBeAg in pediatrics. Rev Med Virol. 2016; 26(4): 285-303.

Kühnert, D., Wu, C. H., Drummond, A. J. Phylogenetic and epidemic modeling of rapidly evolving infectious diseases. Infect Genet Evol. 2011; 11(8): 1825-1841.

Kurbanov, F., Tanaka, Y., Mizokami, M. Geographical and genetic diversity of the human hepatitis B virus. Hepatol Res. 2010; 40(1): 14-30.

Lampertico, P., Agarwal, K., Berg, T., Buti, M., Janssen, H.L., Papatheodoridis, G., et al., Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of hepatology. 2017; 67(2): 370-398.

Lavanchy, D., Kane, M. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection. InHepatitis B virus in human diseases 2016 (pp. 187-203). Humana Press, Cham.

de Waal Malefyt, R., Haanen, J., Spits, H., Roncarolo, M. G., te Velde, A., Figdor, C., et al., Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 strongly reduce antigen-specific human T cell proliferation by diminishing the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes via downregulation of class II major histocompatibility complex expression. J Exp Med. 1991; 174: 915-924.

Viet, L., Lan, N. T., Ty, P. X., Björkvoll, B., Hoel, H., Gutteberg, T., et al., Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam. Indian J Med Res. 2012; 136(1): 74-81.

Patel, T. Apoptosis in hepatic pathophysiology. Clin Liver Dis. 2000; 4(2): 295-317.

Levrero, M., Zucman-Rossi, J. Mechanisms of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2016; 64(1 Suppl): S84-S101.

Li, X., Zhao, J., Yuan, Q., Xia, N. Detection of HBV Covalently Closed Circular DNA. Viruses. 2017; 9(6): 139.

Liu, B., Zhang, D., Xu, R., Xu, J., Wang, X., Chen, Q., et al., Combining evolutionary information extracted from frequency profiles with sequence-based kernels for protein remote homology detection. Bioinformatics. 2014. 15; 30(4): 472-479.

Liu, C. J., Kao, J. H. Global perspective on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B: role of hepatitis B virus genotypes A to J. Semin Liver Dis. 2013; 33(2): 97-102.

Liu, Z., Dai, X., Wang, T., Zhang, C., Zhang, W., Zhang, W., et al., Hepatitis B virus PreS1 facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma development by promoting appearance and self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells. Cancer Lett. 2017; 1; 400: 149-160.

Lok, A. S., McMahon, B.J. Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009. Hepatology. 2014; 50(3): 661-662.

Lucifora, J., Protzer, U. Attacking hepatitis B virus cccDNA--The holy grail to hepatitis B cure. J Hepatol. 2016; 64(1 Suppl): S41-S48.

Maini, M. K., Gehring, A.J. The role of innate immunity in the immunopathology and treatment of HBV infection. J Hepatol. 2016; 64(1 Suppl): S60-S70.




How to Cite

Abdul-Qader Khuder H. The role of immune mediators in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2021Dec.31 [cited 2022Jan.20];41(4):752-5. Available from:



Original Research Articles