Regulatory proteins in placental angiogenesis


  • Anil Kumar K. V. Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University) Salem, Tamil Nadu, India and Department of Anatomy, Sree Gokulam Medical College & Research Foundation, Venjaramoodu, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
  • Kavitha S. Department of Anatomy, Vinayaka Mission’s Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem Tamil Nadu, India
  • Sreekanth K. S. Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Sree Gokulam Medical College & Research Foundation, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India



Angiogenesis, cytokines, growth factors, hypoxia, placenta, vasculogenesis


The vasculature of the placenta plays a crucial role during the course of pregnancy in order to maintain the growing need of the fetus. Abnormal placental structure and function significantly increase the risk of stillbirth. Various growth factors and cytokines play an important role in the vasculogenesis and angiogenesis of placenta. These processes are stimulated by various pro-angiogenic factors. The activities of these factors are also stimulated by hypoxia. In some of the physiological phenomenon like ovulation, embryogenesis as well as in wound healing intense blood vessel growth can be seen similar to that seen in placenta. Therefore, factors that induce and maintain placental vascular growth and function are of considerable developmental and clinical significance. The total arterial architecture may also depend upon the pro-angiogenic factors. Hormones and other growth factors are other contributors of this vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Any dysfunction of factors can lead to foetal hypoxia and related complications. This review describes the major growth factors and their significant role in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis of placenta.


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How to Cite

Kumar K. V. A, S. K, K. S. S. Regulatory proteins in placental angiogenesis. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2021Dec.31 [cited 2022Jan.20];41(4):694-700. Available from: