Periodic reinforcement of knowledge and attitude towards basic life support skills among the medical undergraduates: A necessity of undergraduate medical education


  • Namratha Ashwin Ullal
  • Bindiya Sathis
  • Mohd. Ehtesham Ali Farooqui
  • Ashwini



First-year medical undergraduate, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support, knowledge, attitude


Introduction and Aim: A sudden cardiac arrest can be a life-threatening emergency with poor survival rates. By learning basic life support (BLS) and practicing simple cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the patient is likely to survive until arrival of expert medical help. The study therefore aims to determine if trained medical undergraduate students retain knowledge and attitude regarding skills.


Methods: About 150 students in the first year of medical school participated in the current study. The students attended two BLS training sessions of three hours each. The students were evaluated at six weeks and followed up at six months following the initial training session. The psychomotor skills were check-listed, and the performance was scored between 0 to 5. Data on knowledge and attitudes were collected with a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire.


Results: Among the participants, 69% were males, and 33% were females. The mean age group of study subjects was 21 ± three years. The skill scores (p=0.001) and knowledge scores (p=0.001) were significantly different at six weeks and six months after the initial training. Six weeks after the initial training session, the percentage of correct responses for knowledge questions was significantly higher than six months later. Approximately 86.3% of participants felt the BLS training was adequate to perform resuscitation confidently, while only 66.7% were confident after six months of training (p=0.001). Also, the number of students confident to give BLS during a medical emergency was significantly higher at six weeks after the initial training session than six months (p=0.001).


Conclusion: The study shows significant decay in psychomotor skills and knowledge and attitude among the medical undergraduates. Therefore, regular hands-on training with certifiable courses is required to reinforce skills and update knowledge regarding BLS.

Author Biographies

Namratha Ashwin Ullal

Department of Physiology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Bindiya Sathis

Department of Physiology, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Mohd. Ehtesham Ali Farooqui

Department of Physiology, Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India


Department of Physiology, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (DU), Mangalore, Karnataka, India


Adewale, B.A., Aigbonoga, D.E., Akintayo, A.D., Aremu, P.S., Azeez, O.A., Olawuwo, S.D., et al., Awareness and attitude of final year students towards the learning and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria. Afr J Emerg Med. 2021;11(1):182-187. DOI:

Steen, P.A., Kramer-Johansen, J. Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality to ensure survival. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008;14(3):299-304. DOI:

Okonta. Theoretical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among clinical medical students in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 18]. Available from:

Yunus, M., Mishra, A., Karim, H., Raphael, V., Ahmed, G., Myrthong, C. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of basic life support among junior doctors and students in a tertiary care medical institute. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2015; 3(12): 3644-3650. DOI:

Kumar, M.S. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Basic Life Support Among Undergraduate Dental Students. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2017;42(2):188-193.

Abolfotouh, M.A., Alnasser, M.A., Berhanu, A.N., Al-Turaif, D.A., Alfayez, A.I. Impact of basic life-support training on the attitudes of health-care workers toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017; 17(1):674. DOI:

Ong, M.E., Yap, S., Chan, K.P., Sultana, P., Anantharaman, V. Knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation amongst Asian primary health care physicians. Open Access Emerg Med. 2009;1:11-20. DOI:

Ralapanawa, D., Jayawickreme, K.P., Ekanayake, E.M.M., Kumarasiri, P.V.R. A study on the knowledge and attitudes on advanced life support among medical students and medical officers in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. BMC Research Notes. 2016;9(1):462. DOI:

Avabratha, K., Bhagyalakshmi, K., Puranik, G., Shenoy, K., Rai, B. A study of knowledge of resuscitation among interns. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2012;5(2):152-156.

Suzuki, A., Suzuki, Y., Takahata, O., Fujimoto, K., Nagashima, K., Mamiya, K., et al., A survey of 3,303 6th-year medical students from 36 universities concerning knowledge of resuscitation--more than 80% of medical students cannot perform standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation?]. Masui. 2001;50(3):316-322.

Grze?kowiak, M.The effects of teaching basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation-A comparison between first and sixth year medical students. Resuscitation. 2006; 68(3):391. DOI:

Tsegaye, W., Tesfaye, M. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Associated Factors in Ethiopian University Medical Students. J Gen Pract [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2021 Jun 22];03(04). Available from: DOI:

Roshana, S., Kh, B., Rm, P., Mw, S. Basic life support: knowledge and attitude of medical/paramedical professionals. World J Emerg Med. 2012;3(2):141-145. DOI:

Zaheer,H., Haque, Z. Awareness about BLS (CPR) among medical students: status and requirements. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59(1):57-59.

Arsati, F., Montalli, V.A., Flório, F.M., Ramacciato, J.C., da Cunha, F.L., Cecanho, R., et al., Brazilian dentists’ attitudes about medical emergencies during dental treatment. J Dent Educ. 2010;74(6):661-666. DOI:




How to Cite

Ullal NA, Sathis B, Ali Farooqui ME, Ashwini. Periodic reinforcement of knowledge and attitude towards basic life support skills among the medical undergraduates: A necessity of undergraduate medical education. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2022 May 1 [cited 2022 Nov. 27];42(2):333-7. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Plum Analytics