Covid vaccine dilemma curbing the herd immunity in India- Jab or no jab?

Authors

  • Srinidhi Rai Department of Biochemistry, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Tirthal Rai Department of Biochemistry, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Sindhu H. Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  • Shamantha Rai B. Department of Information Science & Engineering, Sahyadri College of Engineering & Management, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India (Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India)
  • Rithesh Pakkala P. Department of Information Science & Engineering, Sahyadri College of Engineering & Management, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India (Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51248/.v41i4.975

Keywords:

COVID -19, covishield, covaxin, vaccination, India

Abstract

After the devastating second wave of COVID-19, with the rapid increase in the number of new cases in many states of India marking the beginning of a probable third wave of COVID-19, our best bet is taking a jab to protect against COVID-19. Currently, licensed vaccines are found to be reasonably safe and effective. The second wave of COVID-19 was devastating, but it's a silver lining to note that most of the individuals who had taken the jab recovered with mild infections, and the hospitalization rates among jabbed individuals were meager.  Various rumours related to the efficacy, safety, content, and side effects of the vaccine in India had caused a plunge in the vaccine acceptance rate leading to hesitancy and carelessness among the Indian population. This is a critical time for facts, not fear or rumors. This review provides an insight into the myths, pros and cons, and efficacy of the available vaccines.

References

Kumar, S.U., Kumar, D.T., Christopher, B.P., Doss, C. The rise and impact of COVID-19 in India. Frontiers in medicine. 2020 May 22; 7:250.

Elflien, J. Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases, recoveries, and deaths worldwide as of August 13, 2021. Health, Pharma and Medtech> state of health. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1043366/novel-coronavirus-2019ncov-cases-worldwide-by-country/

Jain, V.K., Iyengar, K.P., Ish, P. Elucidating causes of COVID-19 infection and related deaths after vaccination. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2021 Jul 15:102212.

Mallapaty, S. India’s massive COVID surge puzzles scientists. Nature. 2021 Apr 21; 592(7856):667-668.

Raju, E., Dutta, A., Ayeb-Karlsson, S. COVID-19 in India: Who are we leaving behind? Progress in Disaster Science. 2021 Apr 1; 10:100163.

Bhattacharya, A., Ranjan, P., Ghosh, T., Agarwal, H., Seth, S., Maher, G.T., et al., Evaluation of the dose-effect association between the number of doses and duration since the last dose of COVID-19 vaccine, and its efficacy in preventing the disease and reducing disease severity: A single centre, cross-sectional analytical study from India. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2021 Jul 30:102238.

Dasgupta, R., Mishra, P., Yadav, K. COVID-19 vaccination and the power of rumors: Why we must “Tune in”. Indian Journal of Public Health. 2021 Apr 1; 65(2):206.

Kumar, V. M., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Trakht, I., Thyagarajan, S.P. Strategy for COVID-19 vaccination in India: the country with the second highest population and number of cases. npj Vaccines. 2021 Apr 21; 6(1):1-7.

Padma, T.V. India's COVID-vaccine woes–by the numbers. Nature. 2021 Apr 15; 592(7855):500-1.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. #India-FightsCorona COVID-19. Available at: https://www.mygov.in/covid-19/.[Accessed 14 August 2021]

State/UT wise Aadhaar Saturation (Overall) - All Age Groups 31st December, 2020 https://uidai.gov.in/images/state-wise-aadhaar-saturation.pdf [accessed, 14 august 2021]

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). COVID-19 vaccine. Available at:https://vaccine.icmr.org.in/covid-19-vaccine. [Accessed 28 May 2021]

Teran, R.A, Walblay, K.A., Shane, E.L., Xydis, S., Gretsch, S., Gagner, A., et al., Postvaccination SARS?CoV?2 infections among skilled nursing facility residents and staff members—Chicago, Illinois, December 2020–March 2021. American Journal of Transplantation. 2021 Jun; 21(6):2290-2297.

Pal, R., Bhadada, S.K., Misra, A. COVID-19 vaccination in patients with diabetes mellitus: Current concepts, uncertainties and challenges. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2021 Feb 25.

Sapkal, G., Yadav, P.D., Ella, R., Abraham, P., Patil, D.Y., Gupta, N., et al., Neutralization of VUI B. 1.1. 28 P2 variant with sera of COVID-19 recovered cases and recipients of Covaxin an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2021 May 17.

Yadav, P., Sapkal, G.N., Abraham, P., Ella, R., Deshpande, G., Patil, D.Y., et al., Neutralization of variant under investigation B. 1.617 with sera of BBV152 vaccinees. bioRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Ella, R., Vadrevu, K.M., Jogdand, H., Prasad, S., Reddy, S., Sarangi, V., et al., Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2021 May 1; 21(5):637-646.

Gupta, N., Kaur, H., Yadav, P., Mukhopadhyay, L., Sahay, R.R., Kumar, A., et al., Clinical characterization and Genomic analysis of COVID-19 breakthrough infections during second wave in different states of India. medRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Keech, C., Albert, G., Cho, I., Robertson, A., Reed, P., Neal, S., et al., Phase 1–2 trial of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein nanoparticle vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Dec 10; 383(24):2320-2332.

Bobdey, S., Kaushik, S.K., Sahu, R., Naithani, N., Vaidya, R., Sharma, M., et al., Effectiveness of ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 Vaccine: Experience of a tertiary care institute. Medical journal armed forces india. 2021 Jul 1; 77:S271-S277.

Knoll, M.D., Wonodi, C. Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. The Lancet. 2021 Jan 9; 397(10269):72-74.

Voysey, M., Clemens, S.A., Madhi, S.A., Weckx, L.Y., Folegatti, P.M., Aley, P.K., et al., Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. The Lancet. 2021 Jan 9; 397(10269):99-111.

Clinicaltrials.gov. A Phase III Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study in Adults to Determine the Safety, Efficacy, and Immunogenicity of AZD1222, a Non-replicating ChAdOx1 Vector Vaccine, for the Prevention of COVID-19.[Online]Availableat: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04516746?term=NCT04516746&draw=2&rank=1. Last accessed: February 2021.

Loomba, S., Figueiredo, A., Piatek, S.J., Graaf, K., Larson, H. J. (2021): Measuring the impact of COVID-19 vaccine misinformation on vaccination intent in the UK and USA. In Nature human behaviour 5 (3), pp. 337-348. DOI: 10.1038/s41562-021-01056-1.

Islam, M.S., Kamal, A.H., Kabir, A., Southern, D.L., Khan, S.H., Hasan, S.M., et al., COVID-19 vaccine rumors and conspiracy theories: The need for cognitive inoculation against misinformation to improve vaccine adherence. PloS one. 2021 May 12; 16(5):e0251605.

Kant, R., Dwivedi, G., Zaman, K., Sahay, R.R., Sapkal, G., Kaushal, H., et al., Serendipitous COVID-19 Vaccine-Mix in Uttar Pradesh, India: Safety and Immunogenicity Assessment of a Heterologous Regime. medRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Hung, I.F., Poland, G.A. Single-dose Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine followed by a 12-week booster. The Lancet. 2021 Mar 6; 397(10277):854-855.

Prabha Raghavan. Explained: Why has the interval between Covishield vaccine doses been raised to 8 weeks?[Online]available at https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-interval-between-covishield-doses-has-been-raised-to-8-weeks-7240465/

Chakraborty, C., Sharma, A.R., Bhattacharya, M., Agoramoorthy, G., Lee, S.S. The current second wave and COVID-19 vaccination status in India. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2021 May 20.

Jain, J. Saurabh, S., Kumar, P., Verma, M.K., Goel, A.D., Gupta, M.K., Bhardwaj, P., Raghav, P.R. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among medical students in India. Epidemiology & Infection. 2021 May 20:1-28.

Gautam, A., Dhara, B., Mukherjee, D., Mukhopadhyay, D., Roy, S., Ganguly, S.S., et al., A Digital Survey on the Acceptance and Affordability of COVID 19 Vaccine among the People of West Bengal, India-A Survey Based Study. medRxiv. 2020 Jan 1.

Guetl, K., Gary, T., Raggam, R.B., Schmid, J., Wölfler, A., Brodmann, M. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia treated with immunoglobulin and argatroban. Lancet (London, England). 2021 Jun 11

Pel?i?, G., Kara?i?, S., Mikirtichan, G.L., Kubar, O.I., Leavitt, F.J., Tai, M.C., et al., Religious exception for vaccination or religious excuses for avoiding vaccination. Croatian medical journal. 2016 Oct; 57(5):516.

Bird, S.T., Bogart, L.M. Birth control conspiracy beliefs, perceived discrimination, and contraception among African Americans: an exploratory study. Journal of Health Psychology. 2003 Mar; 8(2):263-276.

Tissot, N., Brunel, A.S., Bozon, F., Rosolen, B., Chirouze, C., Bouiller, K. Patients with history of covid-19 had more side effects after the first dose of covid-19 vaccine. Vaccine. 2021 Jul 22.

Goldberg, T.L. Possible Side Effects after Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine. Journal of Evolutionary Medicine. 2021 Jul 1; 9(6):1-2.

Singh, A.K., Phatak, S., Singh, N.K., Gupta, A., Sharma, A., Bhattacharjee, K., et al., Antibody Response after First-dose of ChAdOx1-nCOV (Covishield) and BBV-152 (Covaxin) amongst Health Care Workers in India: Preliminary Results of Cross-sectional Coronavirus Vaccine-induced Antibody Titre (COVAT) study. medRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Njarekkattuvalappil, S.K., Bhaskaran, R., Jose, P., Rafi, A.M., Thomas, J., Innah, S.J., et al., Prospective sero surveillance among healthcare workers vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona vaccine in a tertiary hospital of Kerala, India. medRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Guha, A.P., Chakrabarti, A., Bhowmick, S., Das, S., Khandelwal, R., Singh, A., et al., The incidence and in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients post-vaccination in eastern India. medRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Venkadapathi, J., Govindarajan, V.K., Sekaran, S., Venkatapathy, S. A minireview of the promising drugs and vaccines in pipeline for the treatment of COVID-19 and current update on clinical trials. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 2021; 8.

Jung, J. Preparing for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination: evidence, plans, and implications. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2021 Feb 22; 36(7).

Iwasaki, A. What reinfections mean for COVID-19. The Lancet infectious diseases. 2021 Jan 1; 21(1):3-5.

Al-Qahtani, W.S., Alsafhi, F.A. A commentary on realities of developing COVID-19 vaccines discussed through the global health safety perspective. Vaccines. 2021 Mar; 9(3):274.

Downloads

Published

2021-12-31

How to Cite

1.
Rai S, Rai T, H. S, Rai B. S, Pakkala P. R. Covid vaccine dilemma curbing the herd immunity in India- Jab or no jab?. Biomedicine [Internet]. 2021Dec.31 [cited 2022Jul.2];41(4):706-13. Available from: https://biomedicineonline.org/index.php/home/article/view/975

Most read articles by the same author(s)