Biomedicine <p>Biomedicine (Print ISSN: 0970 2067), official publication of Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS), published quarterly in March, June, September and December. It is an International Journal for Biomedical Sciences. The journal publishes research papers, reviews, special article, case report, book review and letter to the editor related to Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Toxicology, Endocrinology, Reproductive Biology, Pharmacology and Alternative Systems of Medicines like Siddha, Unani, Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Naturopathy. Preference will be given to papers of immediate importance to other investigators, either by their experimental data, new ideas or new methodology. Scientific correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief related to the published papers may also be accepted provided that they are short and scientifically relevant to the papers mentioned, in order to provide a continuing forum for discussion.</p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing</strong></p> <p>It is indexed in Excerpta Medica, Scopus, Google Scholar, Elsevier Indian Citation Index, Index Medicus, and UGC- CARE. NLM Unique ID: 8405231. Meta Data deposited in DOI and citation is tracked by crossref.</p> Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS) en-US Biomedicine 0970-2067 Assessment of anti-inflammatory effect of three different silver diamine fluoride- An in vitro study <p><strong>Aim </strong>:To compare and evaluate the anti – inflammatory&nbsp; effect&nbsp; of Kedo- SDF, Kids-e SDF and Fagamin SDF.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The three different Silver diamine fluoride solutions(Fagamin,Kids-e and Kedo) were prepared in different test tubes. 1 ml of the silver diamine fluoride solution was added to 10-20 ml disilled water at various fixations. This was added to 0.45 mL bovine serum albumin. pH of the mixture was acclimated to 6.3 with 1N hydrochloric acid. Absorbance was measured spectrophotometrically at 660 nm. Diclofenac sodium was used as the standard group.</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong> At 40?L&nbsp; concentration Ked oSDF had higher anti inflammatory as compared to the other groups including the standard group. At 50?L concentration Kedo SDF and Kids-e SDF had equal anti-inflammatory action and it was higher than Fagamin SDF and the standard group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong> It can be concluded that Kedo silver diamine fluoride solution exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activity as compared to Fagamin solution and Kids-e solution and hence it can be used. The authors also recommend to conduct in-vitro studies in the future based on the anti-inflammatory action of different specimens of silver diamine fluoride.</p> Niharika Kotian Ganesh Jeevanandan Copyright (c) 41 1 Spectroscopic (GC-MS and FT-IR) analysis of Melia azedarach L. leaf extract <p>The aim of the current study is to examine the phytochemical constituents present in the acetone extract of <em>Melia azederach</em> L. leaves through Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform – Infrared spectroscopic analysis. Totally, about 28 phytocompounds were identified in GC - MS and the chromatogram graph showed relative peaks with individual compounds. The major phytocompounds with peak area percentage&nbsp; identified in the acetone extract were 2-methyl-Z,Z-3,13 (44.43%); n-hexadeconoic acid (21.83%); 2-pentanone,4-hydroxy-4-methyl- (10.05%); 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (4.08%); 2-furancarboxaldehyde,5-hydroxymethyl- (3.42%); octadecanoic acid (2.69%); 9-nonadecene (2.19%); dodecanoic acid (1.61%); phytol (1.29%); hydroquinone (1.25%). The FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, alkane, aldehyde, conjugated alkene group, alkyl aryl, ether, primary alcohol and halo compound with stretching and bending functional groups. The result obtained in the present study is an evident that, the phytocompounds present in acetone extract of<em> M. azedarach</em> leaves, might be a potential herbal alterative for various diseases and offers a base to take further investigation to find out its bioactivity and pharmaceutical importance.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Shanthi P Copyright (c) 41 1 The Effectiveness of Video Games as a Rehabilitation Therapy for Cerebral Palsy – A Literature Review <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that results from defects or insult in the immature brain. It results in movement and posture control impairments, difficulty with the organization of sensory information, poor balance. The incidence of cerebral palsy is 2 to 3.5 per 1000 live births. Commercially available videogames such as Nintendo Wii are being used by children with cerebral palsy as part of physiotherapy. The Nintendo WII FIT is designed to improve balance and fitness while providing entertainment. Aim of this study is to review the effect of video games as treatment for cerebral palsy.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong> Research gate, Google scholar, Cochrane library and &nbsp;PubMed central were searched for available articles published from the last 10 years and found 23 eligible articles published in English language describing the benefits of Nintendo WII fit video game for the rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.</p> <p><strong>RESULT: </strong>In this review 23 articles are supported to improve balance and cardiovascular fitness in cerebral palsy</p> <p><em><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</em> We conclude that a video game has positive effects in improving the static standing balance, postural control, fine motor and also effective in home based rehabilitation as an easy, safe, and feasible to handle the device. Video game is playful, fun, engaging, enjoyable, and effective in improving fine movement of the children.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nintendo WII fit video games, video games, developmental therapy, exergaming, cerebral palsy</p> Anbunandhini Copyright (c) 41 1 UNDERSTANDING THE BIOMARKERS IN THE CANCER PATIENTS WITH RADIOTHERAPY: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Blood ground protein biological markers can be implemented as prognostic markers because they have the power to study both contrast in the tumour context and the host defence system. We investigated some biomarkers in cancer patients experienced with radiotherapy to evaluate any effect of radiotherapy in the body.</p> <p><strong>AIM: </strong>To assess radiotherapy induced biochemical changes in the cancer patients.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>This is a case control study<strong>.</strong> This study had enrolled 537 patients of radiation therapy irrespective of any cancer and 537 healthy controls without any history of cancers and radiation. Serum total protein, albumin, creatinine and urea were measured.</p> <p><strong>STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: </strong>Statistical analysis was performed by independent T-Test, One Way Anova, Frequency, Descriptive Statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Albumin had negative statistical significant correlation with all parameters. But total protein which was also composed with other acute phase positive reactants had higher values compared to control group with statistical significance with different r values. (p&lt;0.001)</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Radiotherapy cancer patients under the influence of radiation induced changes in the body like acute phase response, host defense mechanism and so many more had developed changes in the body reflected by biomarkers.</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS: </strong>acute phase response protein(APRP), host defense protein (HDP), immunity, Radiotherapy</p> DR. KINJAL PATEL Dr. DHAVAL KANTILAL CHAUDHARI Copyright (c) 41 1 Impact of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors modulation on renal and liver functional, molecular and histological characteristics in male albino mice <p>The gamma-aminobutyric acid, receptors are considered the main receptors that inhibit neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain and they have been proved to be existing in non-neuronal cells. Lorazepam which is one of the benzodiazepines, drugs known for their modulatory effect on GABA receptors, has been used as a modulator to determine the impact of GABA modulation on renal and liver functions, molecular and histological characteristics in male albino mice. 30 albino adult male albino mice weighing 25- 30 gm were used, out of which 21 were divided into 3 groups. Each were treated with different dose of lorazepam (1 mg/kg, 2mg/kg and 3mg/kg body weight respectively). The rest 9 of the lab animals were considered as a control group. Histological slides were prepared to evaluate the impact of GAPA modulation using lorazepam on liver and kidney tissues while functional parameters were used to as an indication of kidney and liver functional states. Total genomic DNA was extracted from liver, brain, kidney and blood and random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique were used to detect the molecular impact of GABA modulation on the genomic DNA. &nbsp;The results of the functional parameters (serum urea, creatinine,GOT,GPT,GGT,and histopathological examination demonstrated that there was a significant change in treated groups compared to the control group. As for the molecular study, seven primers out of ten gave a single and polymorphic band using RAPD technique. The results revealed changes in RAPD profiles of treated groups as normal bands lost and new bands appeared in comparison with the control group.&nbsp; RAPD profiles of the treated and control samples gave 432 bands, 109 as control bands, 167 as polymorphic bands and other 156 as a homomorphic band. It is concluded that GABA modulation by lorazepam increases the functional and histopathological features and produce variations in the genomic DNA.</p> Adnan AL-Azzawie Copyright (c) 41 1