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Instructions to Authors

Authors should keep their manuscripts as short as possible. Manuscripts should be typed double spaced in a single column in A4 size only. It should be paginated on the upper right hand corner of each page, beginning with the title page. The language of manuscript must be simple and explicit. If needed, the authors should consult those experienced in scientific writing and communication. Recent issues of the Biomedicine Journal should be referred for the general format adopted in respect to various elements of a paper. Identity of the author(s) must NOT appear anywhere in the manuscript (except on the first page file).

 

(A) Review Articles and (B) Educational Forum (Editorial)

Reviews are written by researchers of considerable experience in the field concerned. The authors should review the recent trends or advances in that field in the light of their own work. However, when an author has not done enough original work on a topic but wants to share the knowledge on recent advances/trends which may be useful for post-graduate students or junior members of faculty, one may do so by writing for Educational Forum. The major portion of the above articles should deal with the up-to-date developments in the field in the last 3-5 years. Authors are advised to search Medline and other databases on the Internet, apart from collecting information using conventional methods. These articles should contain a covering letter, title page, summary (should not be structured) and key words. They should be written under appropriate sub-headings. The authors are encouraged to use flowcharts, boxes, cartoons, tables and figures for better presentation.

 

(C) Original Research Articles

These may either be a full length research article or a short communication. These papers should be arranged into the following sections:

  1. Covering letter
  2. Title page
  3. Abstract and key words
  4. Introduction
  5. Materials and Methods
  6. Results
  7. Discussion
  8. Conclusion
  9. Acknowledgment
  10. Conflict of interest
  11. References

 

1. Covering Letter

In addition to the general details (name, address, email ID of corresponding author, contact details including mobile number), it should mention in brief what is already known about this subject and what new is added by the submitted work.

 

2. Title

Must be informative, specific and short. It should not exceed 150 characters. Authors and affiliations: The names of authors and their affiliations should be given. It should be made clear which address relates to which author. Running title: It is a short title printed in the journal at the left top corner of righthand page of the article (except the lead page). It should be not more than 50 characters in length. Address for correspondence: The corresponding author’s address should be given on the title page. The e-mail ID of the corresponding author or the contact e-mail ID must also be provided.

 

3. Abstract and key words

Abstract:

It must start on a new page carrying the following information: (a) Title, (b) Abstract (c) Key words, (d) Running title. It should not exceed 250 words excluding the title and the key words. The abstract must be concise, clear and informative rather than indicative. The abstract must be in a structured form (Introduction and Aim, Materials and Methods, Results and Conclusion) and explain briefly what was intended, done, observed and concluded. The conclusions and recommendations not found in the text of the article should not be given in the abstract.

Keywords:

Provide 3-5 keywords which will help readers or indexing agencies in cross-indexing the study. The words found in the title need not be given as key words.

 

4. Introduction

It should start on a new page. Essentially this section must introduce the subject and briefly say how the idea for research originated. Give a concise background of the study. Do not review literature extensively but provide the most recent work that has a direct bearing on the subject. Justification for research aims and objectives must be clearly mentioned without any ambiguity. The purpose of the study should be stated at the end.

5. Materials and Methods

This section should deal with the materials used and the methodology (how the work was carried out). The procedure adopted should be described in sufficient details to allow the experiment to be interpreted and repeated by the readers, if desired. The number of subjects, the number of groups, the study design, sources of drugs with dosage regimen or instruments used, statistical methods and ethical aspects must be mentioned under the section. The data collection procedure must be described. If a procedure is a commonly used, giving a previously published reference would suffice. If a method is not well known (though previously published) it is better to describe it briefly. Give explicit descriptions of modifications or new methods so that the readers can judge their accuracy, reproducibility and reliability. Statistical Methods: The variation of data should be expressed in terms of the standard error of mean (SEM) or the standard deviation (SD), along with the number of observations (n). The details of statistical tests used and the level of significance should be stated. If more than one test is used it is important to indicate which groups and parameters have been subjected to which test.

6. Results

The results should be stated concisely without comments. They should be presented in a logical sequence in the text with appropriate reference to tables and/or figures. The data given in tables or figures should not be repeated in the text. The same data should not be presented in both tabular and graphic forms. Simple data may be given in the text itself instead of figures or tables. Avoid discussions and conclusions in the results section.

7. Discussion

This section should deal with the interpretation, rather than recapitulation of results. It is important to discuss the new and significant observations in the light of previous work. Discuss also the weaknesses or pitfalls in the study. New hypotheses or recommendations can be put forth. Avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data.

8. Conclusion

must be drawn considering the strengths and weaknesses of the study. They must be conveyed in the last paragraph under Discussion. Make sure conclusions drawn should tally with the objectives stated under introduction.

9. Acknowledgement

Acknowledge only those who have contributed to the scientific content or provided technical support. Sources of financial support may be mentioned.

10. Conflict of interest

Authors have to clearly mention whether they have any conflict of interest.

11. References

It should begin on a new page. The number of references should normally be restricted to a maximum of 25 for a full paper and review articles maximum of 35. Majority of them should preferably be of articles published in the last 5 years. References are to be cited in the text by number in parenthesis and should be in the order in which they appear. References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration. As far as possible mentioning names of author(s) for reference should be avoided in the text. The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. The list of references should be in the Vancouver style.

Book with one author or editor
  • Mason J. Concepts in dental public health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. 2. Ireland R, editor. Clinical textbook of dental hygiene and therapy. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard; 2006.
Two-Six Authors/Editors
  • Miles DA, Van Dis ML, Williamson GF, Jensen CW. Radiographic imaging for the dental team. 4th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier; 2009.
  • Dionne RA, Phero JC, Becker DE, editors. Management of pain and anxiety in the dental office. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2002.
  • Dionne RA, Phero JC, Becker DE, editors. Management of pain and anxiety in the dental office. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2002.
More than Six Authors/Editors
  • Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al., editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2008.

Articles in Journals

Journal Article in Print
  • Haas AN, de Castro GD, Moreno T, Susin C, Albandar JM, Oppermann RV, et al. Azithromycin as a adjunctive treatment of aggressive periodontitis: 12-months randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Aug; 35(8):696-704.
Journal Article from a Website
  • Tasdemir T, Yesilyurt C, Ceyhanli KT, Celik D, Er K. Evaluation of apical filling after root canal filling by 2 different techniques. J Can Dent Assoc [Internet]. 2009 Apr [cited 2009 Jun 14];75(3): [about 5pp.]. Available from: http://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-75/issue-3/201.html Journal
Article from an Online Database
  • Erasmus S, Luiters S, Brijlal P. Oral hygiene and dental student’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour in managing HIV/AIDS patients. Int J Dent Hyg [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2009 Jun 16];3(4):213-7. Available from Medline:

Check list for Tables

  • Serially numbered in Arabic numerals?
  • Short self explanatory heading given?
  • Columns have headings?
  • Units of data given?
  • ‘n’ mentioned?
  • Mean ± SD or Mean ± SEM given?
  • Statistical significance of groups indicated by asterisks or other markers?
  • P values given?
  • Rows and columns properly aligned?
  • Appropriate position in the text indicated?

Figures

Each figure must be numbered and a short descriptive caption must be provided. A computer drawn figure with good contrast is acceptable. Sometimes, raw data for graphs may be required in Excel sheet when the article is accepted for publication. Graphic files for diagrams and figures may be converted to *.pcx, *.tiff, *.jpg format. These files should not exceed 2 MB in size.

Check list for Figures

  • Serially numbered? Self explanatory caption given?
  • X and Y axes graduated?
  • X and Y axes titled (legend)?
  • Units mentioned (if necessary)?
  • Different symbols/markers for different groups given?
  • SD or SEM represented (graphically)?
  • Statistical significance indicated?
  • Approximate position in the text marked?

Short communications

While other things remain the same as described above, these papers should be considerably small in contents.

Letter to Editor/Correspondence

This may either be a small research communication or a commentary on a contemporary issue or remarks/queries on a recently published article in BIOMEDICINE.

Case Reports

Interesting clinical cases (with pharmacologic significance) may be considered for publication. Those with photographs stand a better chance. The case reports should have an unstructured abstract, introduction, case history and a brief discussion.

Fillers

The write-up must be brief. Interesting pictures and photographs may be submitted. For all other items, please contact the Editor-in-Chief Specific requirements for various types of articles are given below:

Note: Do not forget to submit Copy right form. 

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Editor-in-chief
Biomedicine online
[email protected]