Due to transition in the journal platform, the previously submitted articles, which are under process can be re-submitted here for quick process, kindly co-operate


Volume: 44 Issue: 1

  • Open Access
  • Original Article

Bioproduction and characterization of melanin pigment produced by the fungal strain Gliocephalotrichum sp. DSGB2

Gowthami Anjaneya1, Santhosha B. Chandrappa1, Muthuraj Rudrappa2, Santosh Kumar M.1

1Department of Studies in Biochemistry, Davangere University, Shivagangothri Davangere, 577007, Karnataka, India
2P.G. Department of Studies in Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, Karnataka, India

Corresponding author: Santosh Kumar M. Email: [email protected]

Year: 2024, Page: 59-64, Doi: https://doi.org/10.51248/.v44i1.4117

Received: Dec. 12, 2023 Accepted: Feb. 6, 2024 Published: May 1, 2024


Introduction and Aim: The biosynthetic method of naturally occurring pigment melanin production has become a predominant technique in recent years owing to its cost-effectiveness, low chemical usage, and reduced purification procedure. This study aimed to investigate the significant production, characterization, and biological applications of fungal melanin pigment.
Materials and Methods: Melanin production in Gliocephalotrichum sp. DSGB2 strain was carried out by submerged fermentation in tyrosine broth and further purified by acidification and precipitation methods. The purified melanin was characterized by analytical methods such as ultraviolet-visible absorbance, TLC, FTIR spectroscopy, and LC-MS. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging analysis was performed to evaluate antioxidant properties of melanin.
Results: Pigment was confirmed as melanin based on tyrosinase enzyme assay, UV-visible spectroscopy absorbance, TLC, FTIR, and LC-MS analysis. The biosynthesis of melanin was optimized by varying the culture conditions, and the highest yield was obtained under pH 6 at 30ºC. The strain produced about 3.82 gL-1 of melanin in 5 days under optimum conditions and exhibited antioxidant activity.
Conclusion: The study provides new ideas into the biosynthesis of water-soluble melanin by the fungal strain Gliocephalotrichum sp. DSGB2 has broad potential applications as an efficient biomaterial in the biopolymer, pharmaceutical sectors, cosmetic, and environmental.

Keywords: Gliocephalotrichum sp; antioxidant; tyrosinase; melanin.


1. Kiki, M.J. Biopigments of microbial origin and their application in the cosmetic industry. Cosmetics. 2023;10(2): 47.
2. Rudrappa, M., Kumar, S., Kumar, R.S., Almansour, A.I., Perumal, K., Nayaka, S. Bioproduction, purification and physicochemical characterization of melanin from Streptomyces sp. strain MR28. Microbiological Research. 2022;263:127130.
3. Kraseasintra, O., Sensupa, S., Mahanil, K., Yoosathaporn, S., Pekkoh, J., Srinuanpan, S., et al., Optimization of melanin production by Streptomyces antibioticus NRRL B-1701 using Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis residues hydrolysates as low-cost L-tyrosine supplement. BioTech. 2023;12(1):24.
4. Rudrappa, M., Nayaka, S., Kumar, R.S. In silico molecular docking approach of melanin against melanoma causing MITF proteins and anticancer, oxidation–reduction, photoprotection, and drug-binding affinity properties of extracted melanin from Streptomyces sp. strain MR28. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2023;195(7): 4368-4386.
5. Ahn, S.Y., Jang, S., Sudheer, P.D., Choi, K.Y. Microbial production of melanin pigments from caffeic acid and L-tyrosine using Streptomyces glaucescens and FCS-ECH-expressing Escherichia coli. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22(5):2413.
6. Choi, K.Y. Bioprocess of microbial melanin production and isolation. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2021; 9:765110.
7. Surwase, S.N., Jadhav, S.B., Phugare, S.S., Jadhav, J.P. Optimization of melanin production by Brevundimonas sp. SGJ using response surface methodology. Biotech. 2013;3: 187-194.
8. Solano, F. Melanin and melanin-related polymers as materials with biomedical and biotechnological applications-cuttlefish ink and mussel foot proteins as inspired biomolecules. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017;18(7):1561.
9. Jalmi, P., Bodke, P., Wahidullah, S., Raghukumar, S. The fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex as a source of abundant, extracellular melanin for biotechnological applications. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2012;28:505-512.
10. El-Naggar, N.E.A., El-Ewasy, S.M. Bioproduction, characterization, anticancer and antioxidant activities of extracellular melanin pigment produced by newly isolated microbial cell factories Streptomyces glaucescens NEAE-H. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1):42129.
11. Chaskes, S., Cammer, M., Nieves, E., Casadevall, A. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans. PloS One. 2014; 9 (4): e91901.
12. Barretto, D.A., Vootla, S.K. Biological activities of melanin pigment extracted from Bombyx mori gut-associated yeast Cryptococcus rajasthanensis KY627764. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2020;36(10):159.
13. Kumar, C.G., Mongolla, P., Pombala, S., Kamle, A., Joseph, J. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of melanin from a novel strain of Aspergillus bridgeri ICTF‐201. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2011;53(3):350-358.
14. Bors, W., Heller, W., Michel, C., Saran, M. Flavonoids as antioxidants: Determination of radical-scavenging efficiencies. In Methods in Enzymology.1990;186:343-355. Academic Press.
15. Simon, J.D., Hong, L. and Peles, D.N. Insights into melanosomes and melanin from some interesting spatial and temporal properties. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2008;112(42):13201-13217.
16. Bronze-Uhle, E.S., Piacenti-Silva, M., Paulin, J.V., Battocchio, C., Graeff, C.F.D.O. Synthesis of water-soluble melanin. arXiv preprint arXiv. 2015;1508.07457.

17. Rajagopal, K., Kathiravan, G., Karthikeyan, S. Extraction and characterization of melanin from Phomopsis: A phellophytic fungi isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2011;5(7):762-766.
18. Hu, D., Chen, Y., Sun, C., Jin, T., Fan, G., Liao, Q., et al., Genome guided investigation of antibiotics producing Actinomycetales strain isolated from a Macau mangrove ecosystem. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):14271.
19. Hou, R., Liu, X., Xiang, K., Chen, L., Wu, X., Lin, W., et al., Characterization of the physicochemical properties and extraction optimization of natural melanin from Inonotus hispidus mushroom. Food Chemistry. 2019; 277: 533-542.
20. Pralea, I.E., Moldovan, R.C., Petrache, A.M., Ilieș, M., Hegheș, S.C., Ielciu, I., et al. From extraction to advanced analytical methods: The challenges of melanin analysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(16):3943.
21. Kim, D.J., Ju, K.Y., Lee, J.K. The synthetic melanin nanoparticles have an excellent binding capacity of heavy metal ions. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society. 2012; 33(11):3788-3792.
22. Correa, N., Covarrubias, C., Rodas, P.I., Hermosilla, G., Olate, V.R., Valdés, C., et al., Differential antifungal activity of human and cryptococcal melanins with structural discrepancies. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017;8:1292.
23. Ribera, J., Panzarasa, G., Stobbe, A., Osypova, A., Rupper, P., Klose, D., et al., Scalable biosynthesis of melanin by the basidiomycete Armillaria cepistipes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2018; 67(1):132-139.
24. Cabrera-Valladares, N., Martínez, A., Pinero, S., Lagunas-Munoz, V.H., Tinoco, R., De Anda, R., et al., Expression of the melA gene from Rhizobium etli CFN42 in Escherichia coli and characterization of the encoded tyrosinase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 2006; 38(6):772-779.
25. Lagunas‐Muñoz, V.H., Cabrera‐Valladares, N., Bolívar, F., Gosset, G., Martínez, A. Optimum melanin production using recombinant Escherichia coli. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2006; 101(5):1002-1008

Cite this article

Gowthami Anjaneya, Santhosha B. Chandrappa, Muthuraj Rudrappa, Santosh Kumar M.Bioproduction and characterization of melanin pigment produced by the fungal strain Gliocephalotrichum sp. DSGB2. Biomedicine: 2024; 44(1): 59-64