Due to transition in the journal platform, the previously submitted articles, which are under process can be re-submitted here for quick process, kindly co-operate


Volume: 44 Issue: 1

  • Open Access
  • Review Article

Unravelling the cardiovascular symphony: Decoding the intricate influence of green tea polyphenols from leaf to heart

 Priya K. S.1, Martin Lucas A.2, Dinesh Sosalagere Manjegowda3 

1Department of Biotechnology, K S Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, 637 215, Tamil Nadu, India 

2Department of Anatomy, Dr. Chandramma Dayananda Sagar Institute of Medical Education & Research, Devarakaggalahalli, Harohalli, Kanakapura Road, Ramanagara District, 562 112, Karnataka, India 

3Department of Human Genetics, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Dayananda Sagar University, Bangalore, 560 078, Karnataka, India 

Corresponding author: Dinesh Sosalagere Manjegowda. Email: [email protected] 

Year: 2024, Page: 01-12, Doi: https://doi.org/10.51248/.v44i1.4115

Received: Nov. 12, 2023 Accepted: Jan. 10, 2024 Published: April 24, 2024


The extensive exploration of green tea's therapeutic potential in relation to cardiovascular ailments has sparked considerable global interest. The green tea polyphenols notably EGCG, ECG, EGC, EC, and various catechins, exhibit considerable promise as agents with cardioprotective attributes. The green tea polyphenolic compounds effectively counteract the detrimental impact of reactive oxygen species while concurrently modulating intricate cellular signalling pathways, thereby ameliorating the adverse effects of oxidative stress—a pivotal contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, these compounds have demonstrated a capacity to function as antihypertensive agents, primarily through their facilitation of vasodilation, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and deterrence of excessive vasoconstriction. Moreover, green tea polyphenols exert their influence on lipid profiles and cholesterol metabolism, presenting an additional avenue for cardiovascular health maintenance. By inhibiting key enzymes, namely ACAT and HMG-CoA reductases, involved in cholesterol esterification and synthesis, respectively, green tea polyphenols actively contribute to the preservation of a favourable lipid profile, effectively mitigating the risk of atherosclerosis development. In evaluating the bioavailability of green tea polyphenols, it is observed that they exhibit considerable stability in gastric conditions. However, substantial metabolic transformations occur within the intestinal and hepatic milieu, consequently influencing their availability and physiological activity within the human body. This comprehensive review proffers an array of interdisciplinary methodologies, encompassing in silico modelling, omics technologies, and innovative research approaches. These multifaceted avenues possess immense potential in unravelling novel insights and enhancing therapeutic strategies. Future investigations should seek to explore captivating prospects, including the identification of specific polyphenolic constituents or synergistic combinations that exhibit pronounced cardioprotective effects, thus guiding the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. By elucidating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the cardiovascular effects of green tea polyphenols, a greater understanding of the therapeutic targets involved in the prevention. 

Keywords: Cardiovascular green tea; polyphenols; epigallocatechin gallate; epicatechin; lipid profile; atherosclerotic plaques



  1. Mensah, G.A., Roth, G.A., Fuster, V. The global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors: 2020 and beyond. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74:2529-2532. 
  2. Witkowski, M., Weeks, T.L., Hazen, S.L. Gut Microbiota and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res. 2020;127:553-570. 
  3. Abe, S.K., Inoue, M. Green tea and cancer and cardiometabolic diseases: a review of the current epidemiological evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021; 75:865-876. 
  4. Chieng, D., Kistler, P.M. Coffee and tea on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2022;32: 399-405. 
  5. Shin, S., Lee, J.E., Loftfield, E., Shu, X.O., Abe, S.K., Rahman, M.S., et al., Coffee and tea consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective studies from the Asia Cohort Consortium. Int J Epidemiol. 2022;9; 51(2):626-640. 
  6. Xing, L., Zhang, H., Qi, R., Tsao, R., Mine, Y. Recent advances in the understanding of the health benefits and molecular mechanisms associated with green tea polyphenols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2019;67(4):1029-1043. 
  7. Bag, S., Mondal, A., Majumder, A., Banik, A. Tea and its phytochemicals: Hidden health benefits and modulation of signaling cascade by phytochemicals. Food Chemistry. 2022; 371:131098. 
  8. Vyas, T., Nagi, R., Bhatia, A., & Bains, S. K. Therapeutic effects of green tea as an antioxidant on oral health- A review. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 2021;10(11), 3998-4001. 
  9. Lorenzo, J. M., Munekata, P. E. S. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2016;6: 709-719. 
  10. Yamagata, K., Tagami, M., Yamori, Y. Dietary polyphenols regulate endothelial function and prevent cardiovascular disease. Nutrition. 2015; 31:28-37. 
  11. Szczepańska, E., Białek-Dratwa, A., Janota, B., & Kowalski, O. Dietary therapy in prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-tradition or modernity? A review of the latest approaches to nutrition in CVD. Nutrients. 2022; 14: 2649. 
  12. Reygaert, W.C. An update on the health benefits of green tea. Beverages. 2017; 3(1):6. 
  13. Afzal, M., Safer, A. M., & Menon, M. Green tea polyphenols and their potential role in health and disease. Inflammopharmacology. 2015;23:151-161. 
  14. Khan, N., Mukhtar, H. Tea polyphenols in promotion of human health. Nutrients. 2018;11:39. 
  15. Liu, J., Liu, S., Zhou, H., Hanson, T., Yang, L., Chen, Z., et al., Association of green tea consumption with mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer in a Chinese cohort of 165,000 adult men. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2016; 31(9):853-865. 
  16. Pang, J., Zhang, Z., Zheng, T. Z., Bassig, B. A., Mao, C., Liu, X., et al., Green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology. 2016; 202:967-974. 
  17. Oyama, J.I., Shiraki, A., Nishikido, T., Maeda, T., Komoda, H., Shimizu, T., et al., EGCG, a green tea catechin, attenuates the progression of heart failure induced by the heart/muscle-specific deletion of MnSOD in mice. Journal of Cardiology. 2017;69(2): 417-427. 
  18. Maiti, S., Nazmeen, A., Medda, N., Patra, R., Ghosh, T. K. Flavonoids green tea against oxidant stress and inflammation 2019;24: 1-14. 
  19. Cyboran, S., Strugała, P., Włoch, A., Oszmiański, J., Kleszczyńska, H. Concentrated green tea supplement: Biological activity and molecular mechanisms. Life Sciences. 2015;126:1-9. 
  20. Eng, Q. Y., Thanikachalam, P. V., Ramamurthy, S. Molecular understanding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2018;210: 296-310. 
  21. Yamagata, K. Protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate on endothelial disorders in atherosclerosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2020;75:292-298. 
  22. Keske, M. A., Ng, H. L. H., Premilovac, D., Rattigan, S., Kim, J.A., Munir, K., et al., Vascular and metabolic actions of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate. Curr Med Chem. 2015; 22:59-69. 
  23. Patel, R. V., Mistry, B. M., Shinde, S. K., Syed, R., Singh, V., Shin, H. S. Therapeutic potential of quercetin as a cardiovascular agent. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2018; 155, 889-904. 
  24. Dagher, O., Mury, P., Thorin-Trescases, N., Noly, P. E., Thorin, E., Carrier, M. Therapeutic potential of quercetin to alleviate endothelial dysfunction in age-related cardiovascular diseases. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2021; 8: 658400. 
  25. Olas, B. Honey and its phenolic compounds as an effective natural medicine for cardiovascular diseases in humans? Nutrients. 2020; 12:283. 
  26. Silva, H., Lopes, N.M.F. Cardiovascular effects of caffeic acid and its derivatives: A comprehensive review. Front Physiol. 2020;11:595516. 
  27. Kadar, M. A. N. N., Ahmad, F., Teoh, S. L., Yahaya, M. F. Caffeic acid on metabolic syndrome: A review. Molecules. 2021;26(18): 5490. 
  28. Lukitasari, M., Saifur Rohman, M., Nugroho, D. A., Widodo, N., Nugrahini, N. I. P. Cardiovascular protection effect of chlorogenic acid: focus on the molecular mechanism. F1000Research. 2020;9:1462. 
  29. Huang, W. Y., Fu, L., Li, C. Y., Xu, L. P., Zhang, L. X., Zhang, W. M. Quercetin, hyperin, and chlorogenic acid improve endothelial function by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and ACE inhibitory effects. Journal of Food Science.2017; 82(5): 1239-1246. 
  30. Raut, G. K., Manchineela, S., Chakrabarti, M., Bhukya, C. K., Naini, R., Venkateshwari, A., et al., Imine stilbene analog ameliorate isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2020;153:80-88. 
  31. Frolova, S. R., Gorbunov, V. S., Shubina, N. S., Perepukhov, A. M., Romanova, S. G., Agladze, K. I. Stilbene derivative as a photosensitive compound to control the excitability of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Bioscience Reports. 2019;39(1): BSR20181849. 
  32. Feng, Q., Huang, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, R., Zhang, G. Stilbene glucoside: recent advances in pharmacology, bioinformatics investigation, toxicity and future opportunities. Die Pharmazie. 2021;76(8): 351-358. 
  33. Xia, N., Daiber, A., Forstermann, U., Li, H. Antioxidant effects of resveratrol in the cardiovascular system: Antioxidant effects of resveratrol. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174:1633-1646. 
  34. Kosuru, R., Kandula, V., Rai, U., Prakash, S., Xia, Z., Singh, S. Pterostilbene decreases cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation via activation of AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in fructose-fed diabetic rats. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 2018; 32(2): 147-163. 
  35. Kosuru, R., Cai, Y., Kandula, V., Yan, D., Wang, C., Zheng, H., et al., AMPK contributes to cardioprotective effects of pterostilbene against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats by suppressing cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2018;46: 1381-1397. 
  36. Huang, W.C., Liu, J.C., Hsia, C.W., Fong, T.H., Hsia, C.H., Tran, O.T., et al., Pterostilbene, a dimethylether analogue of resveratrol, possesses high potency in the prevention of platelet activation in humans and the reduction of vascular thrombosis in mice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021; 69(16): 4697-4707. 

  37. Hahn, D., Bae, J.S. Recent progress in the discovery of bioactive components from edible natural sources with antithrombotic activity. J Med Food. 2019;22:109-120. 
  38. Soleymani, S., Habtemariam, S., Rahimi, R., Nabavi, S. M. The what and who of dietary lignans in human health: Special focus on prooxidant and antioxidant effects. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2020; 106: 382-390. 
  39. Bolego, C., Poli, A., Cignarella, A., Paoletti, R. Phytoestrogens: pharmacological and therapeutic perspectives. Curr Drug Targets. 2003; 4:77-87. 

Cite this article

Priya K. S. Martin Lucas A. Dinesh Sosalagere Manjegowda. Unravelling the cardiovascular symphony: Decoding the intricate influence of green tea polyphenols from leaf to heart. Biomedicine: 2024; 44(1): 01-12